TOPIC: REVOLT OF 1857
❖ GREASED CARTRIDGES INCIDENT:
1. New rifle introduced-Enfield, cartridge covered with greased paper wrapper.
2. Sepoys had to bite off the cart., before loading the cartridge into the rifle. (it had gunpowder and an iron ball)
3. News spread that the grease was made from fat of cows and pigs.
4. Hindus consider cows: sacred
Muslims consider pigs: dirty
5. Sepoys were enraged, felt it was an attempt to make them outcastes.
❖ BEGINNING OF THE REVOLT:
1. First soldier to protest-Mangal Pandey, fired at his commander, asked other to join.
2. Arrested and hanged on April 8, caused great unrest in army camps everywhere.
3. 24 April, Sepoys at Meerut refused to use the rifle, were dismissed from service, sparked a mutiny.
4. 10 May, raised the banner of the revolt, killed British officers, burnt properties.
5. They set off to Delhi, took control and declared Bahadur Shah Zafar as the emperor and their leader.
❖ SPREAD OF THE REVOLT:
1. Revolt soon spread to northern and Central India.
2. Very strong in Kanpur, Lucknow, Jhansi, Bareilly, Gwalior, Faizabad, Arrah.
3. At most places, civilians joined the sepoys, where they did not participate, they helped the rebels by giving them food and shelter
4. In Lucknow, Residency was the scene of a major battle. As soon as the revolt broke out, people carried out a complete massacre of the Englishmen. Chief Commissioner, Sir Henry Lawrence, sought refuge with 1000 English and 700 Indian soldiers.
5. On 31 May, sepoys laid siege on the Resid. The British held on to it for more than five months. Rebels killed most of the Englishmen incld. Sir Henry Lawrence and the notorious English General O’Neil. Begum Hazrat Mahal led the revolt and proclaimed her son Bijris Kadr as the Nawab of Awadh....