Energy Metabolism: Cardiovascular and Digestive Systems

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Task 4 (P4)

P4: Explain the physiology of two named body systems in relation to energy metabolism in the body In your role as a health and social care professional in a respite care home you have been asked to prepare a booklet to explain to your client group how the body requires and uses energy. You should produce an information booklet that gives an overview of how energy is produced and utilised in the body.

You booklet should include information on:

* Energy forms
* Energy laws
* Why the body needs energy and where does it come from.
* An explanation of the physiology of two named body system, and their role in the utilisation of energy in the body. An examples of 2 systems the you could discuss are as follows:

THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM,
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Fredrick’s response on forms of energy and P4

Examples of energy/Chemical, heat, light and motion.

Examples of chemical energy are digestion of food products. It is not reversible. Chemical processes cannot be reversed as food cannot return to its natural state. Heat energy when rubbing hand, heat energy is created by the friction. Light energy, torch changes from chemical (battery) to light. Motion, a car moving from one point to the other.

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to the other. (Example provided, e.g. from potential to kinetic).

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

Digestion is a chemical process whereby food substances are broken down into soluble unit and absorbed in the blood stream by a process known as assimilation. The digestive system is made of different tract as seen in figure 1.2. All these parts help in the digestion of food.

Digestions start from the mouth. Firstly, ingestion is the process of taking food via the mouth. When the food enters the mouth the food is then chewed, mixed with salivary gland, which produces and enzyme called salivary amylase. This enzyme breaks the food into simpler units for ease of swallowing. The food is turned into bolus, which can now be swallowed. The food goes through the oesophagus. In the oesophagus the wavelike movement (peristalsis) pushes the food into the stomach. When the food is in the stomach, it mixes with gastric acids which kill any germs that may have come with the food. Here enzymes are released to help in the breaking down of food and absorbed into the duodenum where further digestions takes place. In the ileum, further digestions takes place through the walls of the villi. From here the remaining food goes to the colon for further absorption. The food to the large intestine (colon) for egestion to take place (indigestible particles are turned into faeces).

The food creates energy through the nutrients which are absorbed through the small intestine. E.g. Carbohydrates give the body energy and proteins give the body fuel for reparation.

CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
This system is made up of the heart and the blood vessels. The pumping of blood through the body is mainly done by the heart and the blood vessels are responsible for transporting the blood through the body. The heart is divided into four chambers , half of it is responsible for circulating deoxygenated blood(right atrium and right ventricle) and the other half is responsible for circulation oxygenated blood(left atrium and left ventricle). Blood enters the right side of the heart through the Superior and inferior vena cava. SV collects blood from the upper part of the body and the other from the lower part of the body. The blood then goes to the right atrium and when this contracts, blood goes to the tricuspid valve and then to the right ventricle and when this contracts Blood enters the pulmonary valve and then to the pulmonary arteries and back to the lungs to pick up oxygen and then to the pulmonary vein. The blood that comes through the pulmonary vein contains oxygen and enters the left atrium. When the left...
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