In today’s demanding business world, learning is of critical importance. Successful learning, the application of what has been learnt to the workplace through successful transfer of training and a positive work environment is what measures individual and corporate performance. As employees are chosen to learn, it is usually in the form of structured training (Schimic & Jevremovic 2011). Due to global competitive pressures structured training does not help the employee retain enough knowledge to be useful in the workplace, as mostly the transfer of training fails when the employee is reinserted. This can be due to a variety of factors such as poor trainee characteristics, poor training design and a poor working environment with no support from peers and management (Wilson & O’Connor 2000). However, large learning organisations such as Google have adopted new forms of subordinate training in the form of a twenty percent day in conjunction with successful knowledge management. Other models such as the seventy twenty ten model are also been more widely used by the larger organisations of today. Following the andragogy framework this new form of subordinate training proves advantageous from both a workers and an organisational perspective by increasing the salary of workers whilst in turn improving productivity and profit for the organisation.
The definition of learning is a broad one as there is no simple definition. However, it is known that learning can occur permanently when an internal and external change is observed. The permanent external change is known as behaviorist and this occurs due to experience (Cross 2007). The permanent internal change is cognitive and will also occur due to mental associations. Furthermore, within the workplace three different types of learning can occur. These are implicit, self directed and guided learning. Implicit learning in its simplest definition is day to day learning. Prime examples of implicit learning include, an employee solving everyday work problems, trying new and innovative approaches to problems and also learning whilst on a normal workday. Self directed learning can be seen as an improvement upon implicit learning (Strathern 2010). Employees within a workplace that choose to self direct learn will learn based on their own interest and curiosity. This can be done in their own time explicitly which will build upon basic daily implicit learning. Guided learning is as the title suggests, guided. Learning in the workplace will take the form of personal or collective coaching, training and educational programs as opposed to self directed learning (Noe & Winkler 2012). Self directed learning is a form of informal learning; it falls under this form due to its learner-centric focus (Poell 2005). Due to self directed learning being a form of informal learning, it is clear that it follows andracogic theory (Knowles 1977). However, guided learning is the opposite of this as it entails a structured, formal type of learning. Because of this, guided learning follows the most commonly used pedagogical framework.
When an existing employee is selected for further training the new employee will be exposed to structured and formal training by the organisation. Once finalised, the employee will then be inserted within the new working environment and their working life will continue. Whatever the employee has learnt and retained and applied within the working environment is called the transfer of training. The transfer of training process is a difficult one and entails many factors. Firstly, for a trainee to have learning retention during training, the trainee will need a general skill set, this is also known as general training. General training examples include basic literacy skills, communication skills and cognitive skills. Cognitive skills are of mental capacity and are highly sought by organinsations. Next is fidelity, fidelity is the similarity between the environment at...
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