Elements of Argument

Topics: Rhetoric, Stephen Toulmin, Logic Pages: 5 (1786 words) Published: November 5, 2011
For hundreds of years there had been only one excepted way of written argument, which was Aristotle’s model. Now there are several more, including Rogers and the Toumlin Rhetoric’s. Every day we face different situations, some good some bad. When the one situation comes up where you are left in disagreement with another person, have you ever thought of how you can argue over the matter? Clearly most do not, and will argue their point until they win or the other person finally understands. I can honestly say I have never thought of how I will argue any matter, until I read about three different forms of written arguments in our text book in English class. In this paper we will go over the three different forms by Aristotle, Carl Rogers, and Stephen Toulmin. Each has their own effective way to get to the point of the argument. The Aristotelian and Toulmin Models are good forms of argument. Though with the Rogerian method the way he uses his empathetic ways is the one for me. For hundreds of years, only one way of argument was ever accepted. Nobody ever had thought of any other ways until the past hundred years. The first rhetoric we will go over is the Aristotelian Rhetoric by Aristotle. Aristotle was born in Stagira in northern Greece. He was the son of Nichomachus, the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. Aristotle was trained first in medicine, and then in 367 he was sent to Athens to study philosophy. After leaving Athens, Aristotle spent some time traveling, and possibly studying biology, in Asia Minor (now Turkey) and its islands. (Aristotle 384-322 B.C.E.) He had returned to Macedonia in 338 to tutor Alexander the Great. Alexander then had liberated Athens, and Aristotle returned to Athens and set up a school of his own. It was known as the Lyceum. Alexander the Great had passed away then Athens rebelled against Macedonian rule, and Aristotle's political situation became uncertain. So to avoid being put to death, Aristotle fled to the island of Euboea. He soon died after. Aristotle’s argument method is still used by many people today. People like how he used the use of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos within his arguments. Logos is the appeal to the logic within the argument, which is used to help support claims. Pathos is the appeal to the emotions. While Ethos, is the character and credibility of the person who is arguing their point. (Bator, Paul). The goals of the rhetoric were to learn to argue successfully in a court of law on judicial matters or in another public forum on political ones. The main goal was to win either in a court case dealing with something that had happened in the past or to win approval for a political proposal about what should happen in the future. (Rottenberg, t. Annette ). Like I had mentioned earlier, people like his use of Logos, Pathos, and Ethos. You want to know how credible the speaker or other person is in the argument. That is why it works well in a court situation. Even though Aristotle’s method works well let’s move on to Carl Rogers’s method. Dr. Carl R. Rogers was born in Oak Park, Illinois, in 1902. He had received his B.A. from the University of Wisconsin in 1924, a M.A. from Columbia University in 1928, and his Ph.D. in psychotherapy from Columbia University in 1931. Then in 1940 Rogers had moved on to the Ohio State University where he stayed until 1945 and became professor of psychology. He then transferred in 1945 to the University of Chicago. He was the executive secretary at the Counseling Center and professor of psychology. In 1957 he took a joint position in the departments of psychology and psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin.(Hall Kathy Jo.). After this he went on and had traveled to a diversity of colleges. Rogers was a leading figure within psychotherapy and had developed a breaking theory of personality development. He is well known for his emphasis on personal awareness and allowing clients to have increasing flexibility in determining the...
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