Electrochemistry

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Electrochemistry is a branch of chemistry that studies chemical reactions which take place in a solution at the interface of an electron conductor (a metal or a semiconductor) and an ionic conductor (the electrolyte), and which involve electron transfer between the electrode and the electrolyte or species in solution. If a chemical reaction is driven by an external applied voltage, as in electrolysis, or if a voltage is created by a chemical reaction as in a battery, it is an electrochemical reaction. In contrast, chemical reactions where electrons are transferred between molecules are called oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions. In general, electrochemistry deals with situations where oxidation and reduction reactions are separated in space or time, connected by an external electric circuit to understand each process.

|Contents | |[hide] | |1 History | |1.1 16th to 18th century developments | |1.2 19th century | |1.3 The 20th century and recent developments | |2 Principles | |2.1 Redox reactions | |2.2 Oxidation and reduction | |2.3 Balancing redox reactions | |2.3.1 Acidic medium | |2.3.2 Basic medium | |2.3.3 Neutral medium | |3 Electrochemical cells | |4 Standard electrode potential | |5 Spontaneity of redox reaction | |6 Cell emf dependency on changes in concentration | |6.1 Nernst equation | |6.2 Concentration cells | |7 Battery | |7.1 Dry cell | |7.2 Mercury battery | |7.3 Lead-acid battery | |7.4 Lithium rechargeable battery...
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