This chapter consist of the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objective of the study, research questions, significance of the study, limitations, scape of the study and operational definition. 1.1 BACGROUND OF THE STURDY
When a counting is faced with challenges of ensuring the provision of child care services becomes too wide for the state .In this case foster care and more extensive adoption programe are preferred to be practiced. However, there will always be situation where there is a shortage of forster parent and you will be requiring orphanage to provide care for the children. Most charity homes that have provided children services for example; Mama Ngina children Home and Dada Mary children Rehabilation center increasingly focusing their effort on community based care to keep them in the extended families. Due to profound changes in Kenya in the mid 80’s has been the formation of street to children who run away from their families to the streets. This 21’st century extra ordinary episodes are seeminly related to the degeneration social value and socio-economic hardship of the day. Research by Vonda sharnk to Herman (1992) has shorwn that there is maltreatment of children. Parents as care takes era legally responsible for supporting and providing for children. But in the absence of these or any relatives willingly to care for the children they become award of the state. By looking at the number of children seen on the roaming on the streets there raising a need to find out the root course so that a lasting solution is found. AVERT international organization (2005) describes the rnumber of orphans and vulnerable children in the past three decades in Africa as an explosion. AVERT estimate the number at 46% of all children in“need of care and protection” as AIDS orphans. AVERT further agues that family structures in Africa can not cope because of numbe of orphans and vunrable children. It is likely that at this time the situation is unbearable and there is need to conduct a research to find out the real effect of child abuse on performance on ECDE center in Tingolo Zone . It appears that the exodus of children to urban areas is related to child abuse. According to the Republic of Kenya (2007) every child should have a right to life, survival, development , parent care, name and nationality registration at birth , on discrimination protection from all forms of abuse, education, privacy, leisure, priper and adequate nutrition, health care and parental spiritual guidance. But in the absence of the above rights, the child feels being abused and neglected hence performance of the child reduces. It has been noticed that members of the community and individual look the request knowledge about child rights hence resulting into cases received in the media on child abuse. In urban as well as rural areas, the number of working children is alarming seemingly these large numbers tells of children dropping out of school or never given a chance to join ECDE center in the first place. These group of children are likely not to join school unless something is done to rescuer this from the streets. The crime and prostitution rate already being practiced in the society is done this from the streets. The crime and prostitution rate already being practiced in the society is soar. The implication of pre-mature deaths from drug abuse, police shootings and HIV/AIDS. Mr Njenga says that we shall be gong to waste as we stand to loose a generation that would have given back to the society.It is therefore reasonable to conclude that child abuse is issure in the society that need to be investigated 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
It has been noticed that ECO children learn a great deal through observation and imitation. Parents take a bigger fraction of child’s environment hence they have a significant role in...