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Indus Valley Civilization
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Early extent of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders Bronze Age|
↑ Chalcolithic|
Near East (3600-1200 BC)Caucasus, Anatolia, Levant, Indus valley, Mesopotamia, Elam, Jiroft,Aegean Civilization,Bronze Age collapseEurope (3200-600 BC)Caucasus (Maykop culture)Basarabi cultureCoțofeni culturePecica cultureOtomani cultureWietenberg cultureCatacomb cultureSrubna cultureBeaker cultureUnetice cultureTumulus cultureUrnfield cultureHallstatt cultureAtlantic Bronze AgeBronze Age BritainNordic Bronze AgeRomanian Bronze AgeSoutheastern European Bronze AgeItalian Bronze AgeIndian Subcontinent (3300-1200 BC)China (3000-700 BC)Korea (800-300 BC)Upper Oxus (2300-1700 BC)| arsenical bronze

writing, literature
sword, chariot|
↓ Iron Age|
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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) in the northwestern region[1] of the Indian subcontinent,[2][3] consisting mainly of what is now Pakistan, and parts of India, Afghanistan and Iran.[4] Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization[n 1] extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valley[8]and the upper reaches of Ganges-Yamuna Doab;[9][10] it extended west to the Makran coast ofBalochistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest known ancient civilization.[citation needed] The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries,Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The...
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