Indus Valley Civilization
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Early extent of the Indus Valley Civilization imposed over modern borders Bronze Age|
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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) in the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent, consisting mainly of what is now Pakistan, and parts of India, Afghanistan and Iran. Flourishing around the Indus River basin, the civilization[n 1] extended east into the Ghaggar-Hakra River valleyand the upper reaches of Ganges-Yamuna Doab; it extended west to the Makran coast ofBalochistan, north to northeastern Afghanistan and south to Daimabad in Maharashtra. The civilization was spread over some 1,260,000 km², making it the largest known ancient civilization. The Indus Valley is one of the world's earliest urban civilizations, along with its contemporaries,Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of well over five million. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The...