I. General Theme:
* Nationalism in Europe grew stronger and with it was the belief in the power of education to shape the future of nation as well as individuals. * Spread of democratic ideas and of the application industry to science. * There were charity schools supported by the church and charitable organization. * Establishment of agricultural, commercial, scientific and industrial schools
II. Specific Events and Facts
1. Increase in the number of Science Schools
"The Nineteenth Century," says Lavasseur, "is the first which has systematized and generalized the education of the people for the value of education in itself." The Sheffield Scientific School of Yale University was established in 1847, the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard in 1848, and the Chandler Scientific School of Dartmouth in 1852. The land grants of 1862 by Congress encouraged this system of education and scientific courses were added to the state universities, while Columbia organized its School of Mines, Washington University of St. Louis its School of Engineering, and in 1861 the Massachusetts Institute of Technology opened its doors. In 1871 the Stevens Institute of Technology was founded at Hoboken, and the Green School of Science was established as a branch of Princeton College. 2. Universities opened for women
Women were not admitted to university examinations in England until 1867, when the doors of the University of London were thrown open, and, in 1871, Miss Clough opened a house for women students in Cambridge, which in 1875 became Newnham College. Women were formally admitted to Cambridge in 1881, and somewhat similar privileges were given at Oxford in 1884. The two earliest women's colleges in the United States are generally reported to be Mount Holyoke, which dates from 1836, and was organized by Mary Lyon; but it had for its curriculum merely an academic course, and...