* Early Medieval Europe Founding of the Church
* 2. Introduction: The Roots (This Series) Judaism Greece Rome Christianity and Christ Himself The Early Theologians * 3. Introduction: Fluorescence (The Next Series) Dark Ages Feudalism The Sociopolitical Structure Eve of the Renaissance * 4. Roots of Medieval Era: Judaism of Abraham Hebrews: a population in the city of Ur in Sumeria The word is derived from Greek biblia, which means “book,” hence “People of the Book” Abraham was said to have led his people out of Ur and migrated westward to the Fertile Crescent to settle in Canaan or Israel (see map) There he made a covenant with God (Yahweh): “I will be your God; you will be my people” (Lower left) Hence the expression “The Chosen People.” * 5. Roots of Medieval Era: Judaism of Moses Israelites migrated to Egypt but fell into slavery as pharaohs tried to expel last of the Hyksos. Under Moses (1300 BCE), departed from Egypt and headed toward Canaan At Galilee, forged the ideology of monotheism, the religion of one God Also defined a set of ethical and spiritual obligations Agreed to a covenant binding the community to God in return for his protection * 6. Roots of Medieval Era: The Decalogue The Ten Commandments governing relations between humans and God and among each other Framed in the negative, similar to the Egyptian Book of the Dead First Commandment: Thou shalt not have other gods before me—devotion to a single God (similar to a single God Aten among the Egyptians Retribution is threatened (to 3-4 generations) but unspecified The trials of Job test his faith * 7. Roots of Medieval Era: Judaic Model of the Universe To the Sumerians (and later the Greeks), the universe was chaotic at the beginning Hebrews: the universe was well organized and planned underpinned by a moral code God transcended nature and its phenomena The conception of an ethical monotheism was to influence Western thought * 8. Roots of Medieval Era: Christianity Christianity emerged from Judaism but also Greek and Roman tradition It entailed a rejection of the rationalistic thought of both Greeks and Romans and trended toward mysticism “The Ways of God are mysterious”: Job’s trials Various cults of the mysteries emphasized sacrifice, death and resurrection * 9. Roots of Medieval Era: Judaic Model of the Messiah Roman occupation of Jerusalem sparked a revolt over their refusal to worship the emperor and the gods The Jews worshipped only God Rivalry between the Sadducees, who saw the Messiah as a temporal leader And the Pharisees who saw the Messiah as the spiritual leader of his flock to salvation The monastic Essenes practiced asceticism, a theme very much in the medieval tradition * 10. Christ: His Early Years The phases of His Birth and Youth is summarized on p. 198 Key events: The period prior to birth: the Annunciation of the Angel Gabriel, the Visitation, The Nativity (birth), the Adoration of the Magi (upper left) The Massacre of the Innocents and the flight to Egypt Christ as a youth impressing the Elders with his wisdom (lower left) The Baptism and the Temptation The calling of the Apostles Miracles, including the raising of Lazarus The Transfiguration * 11. The Passion of Christ (Last Days) Entry into Jerusalem (Palm Sunday) The Last Supper Night before the Crucifixion: agony in the Garden of Gethsemane, the Betrayal by Judas’s kiss The Trial before Pilate The Road to Calvary with the Cross and Crown of Thorns The Crucifixion The Entombment The Resurrection * 12. Roots of Medieval Era: Jesus Christ and His Teachings Little if anything is known about his life except the birth of the Christ child The Sermon on the Mount captures most of his essential laws, if not all Basic theme: pure altruism—”love thy neighbor as thyself” “ You must be perfect, just as your heavenly father is perfect” Eschewed wealth: “but lay up for yourself treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt and thieves do...
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