Norway – OECD Country Note Early Childhood Education and Care Policy 1999/OECD Starting Strong 2: 2006. Main provision (0-6) Barnehage (Children’s garden/kindergarten). One Government Ministry/One Local Authority Department.
Government goal – “all children whose parents wish it should have a place in a barnehage, full-time or part-time.” (OECD, 1999:12) “All municipalities must offer an ECEC place to all parents … who want to enrol their child. As yet, corresponding legislation has not been drafted to give a legal right to all parents to a place for their child.” (OECD, 2006: 399) Two separate traditions brought together in Barnehage –
* Educationally focused barnehage (19th century - Froebel) * Daghem – (translates as day home)
Precursor was barneasyl (children’s asylum 1837) – more social , focused on poor families. Norways approach to Early Childhood Care and Education
Barnehage – viewed as having “an integrated care and educational role” … “care and learning are seen as inseparable activities.” (OECD, 199: 12) Provision grew slowly – 1970’s increase in service (1970 attendance – 5% of 3/4 yrs olds to 1990’s – attendance rates for 1 – 5 yr olds = 47-60% and increase since then) Very few children under 12mths in barnehage (well developed parental leave system) Barnehage – vary in terms of ownership, management, and funding. 47% - public, owned and managed by local authorities (kommune). Remainder are private – owned and managed in a variety of ways (parent groups, non-profit organisations). All receive state subsidy – all parents make payments – all local authorities subsidise public barnehager that they own and manage. Local authorities vary re policy subsidising private barnehager. Consequence – 3 types of barnehage in relation to funding (public, private – receive local authority funding & private – who do not receive local authority funding). Variations in public funding – parental fees higher in private barnehage – (except those...