Dynamic Trolley Experiment

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  • Topic: Error, Power, Reaction time
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  • Published : May 31, 2012
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Lab Report

Experiment

Aim: To determine the acceleration of an object down an incline plane using various methods.

Research Question: Is there a relationship between the angle θ of the incline and the acceleration down the plane?

Equipment:
* Ticker Timer (AC 50Hz )
* Incline (wood)
* Meter ruler
* Dynamic Trolley ( Mass: 380.55 ± 0.01g )
* Carbonated paper
* Power Source (2W)
* Data Logger
* Motion Sensor
* Tennis Ball
Method for ticker tape experiment:
1. We setup the equipment effectively as shown below in the diagram. 2. We then connected the ticker timer to the power source. 3. We had a person holding the car in place at the top of the incline/ramp. 4. At the same time another person passed carbonated paper through the ticker timer and stuck it on to the Dynamic trolley using tape. 5. Then the person that stuck the carbonated paper on to the dynamic trolley opened the power source and at the same time the person holding the Dynamic trolley in place let go of it and the trolley went down the inline ramp and was stopped by a person at the end of the ramp. 6. This same process was repeated 5 times for each of the 5 people participating in the experiment at 5 different angles (Angles are shown further down in the table). 7. Each carbonated paper was observed closely and the differences were clearly shown when the angles of decline changed. Method for motion sensor experiment:

1. We setup the equipment effectively as shown below in the diagram. 2. A person operated the data logger (and therefore the motion sensor). 3. Another person held the tennis ball steady using a string attached to a part of the lab desk. 4. When the person that operated the data logger said that the motion sensor is ready to record the movement, then the person that held the tennis ball steady let go of the string. 5. Finally a person at the end of the decline ramp caught the tennis ball without making very big movements so that the motion sensor recorded effectively only the movement of the tennis ball and not of the person’s hand. 6. The results were shown in the data logger and then observed and recorded by the people participating in the experiment. 7. This process was repeated 5 times for each of the 5 participants at 5 different angles stated at the table.

Variables:

Independent Variable:
The angle θ of incline was changed by either adding or removing books from the pile of books that kept the incline having a certain height.

Dependent Variable:
We determined the acceleration aD down the incline by either measuring the gaps between the points on the carbonated paper for the ticker tape method, or by just looking at the reading of the motion sensor on the data logger, in the data logger method.

Control Variables:
* The equipment used in each of the two methods.
* The length of the base of the incline.

Ticker Timer (AC 50Hz)

Ticker Timer (AC 50Hz)

Equipment Setup for Ticker Tape Method:
Carbonated paper

Carbonated paper

Dynamic Trolley (Mass: 380.55 ± 0.01g)

Dynamic Trolley (Mass: 380.55 ± 0.01g)

Meter ruler

Meter ruler

Power Source (2W)

Power Source (2W)

Incline (wood)

Incline (wood)

Equipment Setup for Motion Sensor Method:
Data Logger
Data Logger
Motion Sensor
Motion Sensor

Tennis Ball
Tennis Ball

Incline (wood)
Incline (wood)

Results table for Data Logger:
Acceleration Results| Angle: 11.7º| Angle: 9.1º| Angle: 6.7º| Angle: 4.9º| Angle: 16.9º| 1st Result| 1.48| 1.7| 1.19| 0.62| 2.4|
2ndResult| 2.87| 1.6| 1.14| 0.84| 2.3|
3rdResult| 1.67| 1.3| 1.08| 0.77| 3.3|
4thResult| 1.42| 1.3| 1.3| 0.77| 2.3|
5thResult| 1.18| 1.7| 1.3| 0.72| 2.4|

Results table for Angles:
Length| Height| Angles|
98.8| 20.4| 11.7° ± 1%|
98.5| 15.8| 9.1° ± 1%|
99.2| 11.6| 6.7° ± 1%|
99.7| 8.5| 4.9° ± 1%|...
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