# Domino Theory

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• Published : March 20, 2011

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Reputation and the Domino Theory

THEORY OF ACCIDENT CAUSES
Abdul Raouf

ACCIDENTS ARE DEFINED AS UNPLANNED OCCURRENCES WHICH RESULT IN INJURIES, FATALITIES, LOSS OF PRODUCTION OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY AND ASSETS. PREVENTING ACCIDENTS IS EXTREMELY DIFFICULT IN THE ABSENCE OF AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE CAUSES OF ACCIDENTS. MANY ATTEMPTS HAVE BEEN MADE TO DEVELOP A PREDICTION THEORY OF ACCIDENT CAUSATION, BUT SO FAR NONE HAS BEEN UNIVERSALLY ACCEPTED. RESEARCHERS FROM DIFFERENT FIELDS OF SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING HAVE BEEN TRYING TO DEVELOP A THEORY OF ACCIDENT CAUSATION WHICH WILL HELP TO IDENTIFY, ISOLATE AND ULTIMATELY REMOVE THE FACTORS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO OR CAUSE ACCIDENTS. IN THIS ARTICLE, A BRIEF OUTLINE OF VARIOUS ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES IS PRESENTED, FOLLOWED BY A STRUCTURE OF ACCIDENTS. Accident Causation Theories

The domino theory: -
According to W.H. Heinrich (1931), who developed the so-called domino theory, 88 of all accidents are caused by unsafe acts of people, 10% by unsafe actions and 2% by “acts of God”. He proposed a “five-factor accident sequence” in which each factor would actuate the next step in the manner of toppling dominoes lined up in a row. The sequence of accident factors is as follows: 1. Ancestry and social environment

2. Worker fault
3. Unsafe act together with mechanical and physical hazard
4. Accident
5. Damage or injury.
In the same way that the removal of a single domino in the row would interrupt the sequence of toppling, Heinrich suggested that removal of one of the factors would prevent the accident and resultant...