Distillation

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Abstract
In the following project we are discussing about distillation. The operation of the distillation is employed for the purification of liquids from non-volatile impurities. The liquid is heated to the vapor phase and then is collected and recondensed to give back the pure liquid .The non-volatile impurities are left behind in the flask. Here our main focus will be at the fractional distillation. It is the process in which we separate the different components of a mixture on the basis of the difference in their boiling points. When their boiling points differ by more than 10°C.It is mainly use for the mixture of components having less boiling point difference. When the liquids present in the mixture have their boiling points close to each other (i.e. less than 10°C) the separation is best effected by fitting the distillation flask with the fractionating column. In this process a fractionating tower is used. The mixture is preheated and converted into the vapor form and then allowed to enter the fractionating tower. The temperature in fractionating tower differs with the height. Fractionating tower is provided with the different tray like shelves where different fractions having different condensation temperatures are obtained. Although the products obtained from this technique is not 100% pure. Every fraction obtained from the distillation column still contains some impurity of the fraction lower to it. These are separated and if more purification is required the distillate is redistilled. The main application of fractional distillation is in the petroleum industry. This technique is best suited for crude oil refining.

Contents
1. Basic Concepts
1.1 Boiling Point …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1.2 Vapor Pressure……………………………………………………………………………………………... 1.3 Condensation...................................................................................................... 1.4 Partial Pressure……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2. Distillation

2.1 Types of Distillation………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.1.1 Simple Distillation………………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.1.2 Fractional Distillation………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.1.3 Steam Distillation……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.1.4 Vacuum Distillation…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.1.5 Short Path Distillation…………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.2 Raoult’s Law…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.3 Dalton Law……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 2.4 Vapor Enrichment……………………………………………………………………………………………. 3. Fraction Distillation

3.1 Fraction distillation on laboratory scale………………………………………………………. 3.1.1 Applications……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
3.2 Fractional distillation on industrial scale……………………………………………………… 3.2.1 Fractionating column……………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.2.2 Reflux……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 3.2.3 Bubble caps ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3.2.4 Condenser …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4. Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil

4.2 Basic Process.............................................................................................................. 4.1 Boiling point and hydrocarbons……………………………………………………………………… 4.3 How the Distillation Tower Works…………………………………………………………………. 4.4 Products of Fraction Distillation of crude oil………………………………………………… 4.1.1 Advantages ....................................................................................................................

Chapter # 1
Basic Concepts
1.1 Boiling Point
The Boiling Point of a liquid is the temperature at which vapor pressure is equal to the external pressure. The normal boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which its vapor pressure is 760 torr, normal atmospheric pressure at sea level. 1.2 Vapor Pressure

For a liquid, at any temperature, some molecules are evaporating from the surface. As the temperature goes up, the number...
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