Attachment is the bond and affection created by two people. It is a need developed in human beings since we are born to feel secure and safe.
According to Bowlby, this theory is an emotion connection human beings generate when they are born where they get emotionally associated to caregivers, normally the mother, creating to an emotional reaction when this connection of attachment is in danger or gone. (Worden 1991)
“Lasing psychological connectedness between human beings”
The caregiver is giving to the baby an emotional security needed for the development of the baby. (Hospice Slo)
This attachment between baby and caregiver can be partially replaced when the baby grows and gets involved for longer periods of time during the day with other human beings but it is very important to keep the infant close to the main caregiver to improve child’s chance of survival.
Birth involves changes and adjustments, pain and joy and new beginnings (Kubler-Ross 1981)
Key Features of Bolby’s theory of Attachment.
-Monotropy: Babies are strongly attached to the caregiver who is normally the mother, and this attachment takes its form on the first year of life.
-If attachment with the mother has not taken place by age 2, it will be almost impossible to adjust it, even after 6 months of the baby’s life; it would make it very difficult.
-Secure attachment to the caregiver is very important for a future emotional, social and intellectual development.
-Once attachment is created, if it gets interrupted it can led to massive consequences on social, intellectual and emotional development.
-Reciprocal: The attachment is form in a two way.
-Critical period. Between 6 months and 2 years is most important period where the baby and the caregiver should be close to creating a bond.
-Maternal deprivation. As Bowlby describes it, it is the serious developmental impairment caused by being separated from the mother in infancy. (Kubler-Ross 1981)
Having in mind the theories of attachment according to Bowlby and the repercussions if interrupted, we can state the existence of a strong independence between mother and baby.
We can understand that this bond between baby/toddler and caregiver cannot be eternally followed.
In general, the mothers, after a giving birth, have created the attachment and get connected to the baby but at some point, most of them will have to go back to a productive life and join their job again if they had one, as most women will be obliged to contribute to the necessities of the family’s finances so she will be forced to assign the task of caring for the baby after just a few months of the baby’s life.
That does not mean the attachment will be broken but the baby will spend some time during the day looked after by a second party.
The baby will be responsive and create an emotional connection between the new caregiver once the caregiver is responsive and familiar. (Berger 1983)
This is not a journey by choice most of the time. It would be greater if the mother could stay close to home and focus directly on what is right to be sure that her path is connected with the child. (Kornfield 1988)
The task of looking after the baby while the mother is working could be given to a second party in the family, for example grandparents if they are able to take care of the child or any other relative. A nanny or infant day care are some other choices to achieve the right care for the baby. Once the task of carer has been assigned, the baby will be separated of his mother for most of the day and new attachments will be formed, but the main one will be the bond between mother and child.
This change could be lived by the child in a very distressed way as new people or strange people will be caring for him and it could...