Disaster can be defined as “The occurrence of a sudden or major misfortune which disrupts the basic fabric and normal functioning of a society, or community.” “An event or series of events which gives rise to casualties and/or damage or loss of property, infrastructure, essential services or means of livelihood on a scale which is beyond the normal capacity of the affected community’s ability to cope with out aid.”
According to UNISDR Disaster is defined as “A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.” A disaster is a function of the risk process. It results from the combination of hazards, conditions of vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential negative consequences of risk.” How disasters occur? Disasters are caused by hazards and can take different types and forms depending upon the intensity and nature of hazards. Disasters can be natural or manmade. Natural disasters are due to the result of natural hazards like flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, or landslide these affects environment, leading to financial, environmental and human losses. The end results of loss depend on the power of the inhabitants to sustain or defense against the disaster, and their resilience. Manmade are those disasters which are caued due to human activities like deforestation, urbanization etc. According to Cuuny disaster can be broadly classified into two categories i.e 1. Cataclysmic/ Rapid on – set disaster
2. Continuing /Long term disasters
1. Cataclysmic / Rapid On-set Disaster
Cataclysmic disasters causes sudden impacts and tremendous amount of suffering and chaos but this situation does not remain for longer period and very soon things begin to improve. The damaged areas in such disasters is small and such disasters are more disruptive than destructive, especially in terms of food and food distribution. They can disrupt transport and marketing system, irrigation channels and to some extent may destroy food supplies. They also destroy buildings and entire human settlement and can cause abundant losses of life. 2. Continuing / Long Term Disasters
They are slow and steady disasters. The situation after the events remains constant or more deteriorated in the damaged area. Such disasters disturb transportation, infrastructure, distribution network, etc and the damage area in this type of disaster is extremely large and can sometimes bring these facilities to a complete halt. Drought, war and famine are the types of continuing natural disasters. Development:
Development can be broadly defined in different area of study. It could be economic development, social development, community development, social development, curriculum development, business development, human development etc but here we are going to discuss development in terms of community and social development. The Brundtland Commission define development as: "Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." UNDP defines development as: development is 'to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community.' Development can also be defined as "Development Is the process through which people increase their capacities for producing things they need and for managing their political and social lives as they desire and, at the same time reduce their immediate and long-term vulnerabilities to events which threaten their economic and socio-political existence." There are both positive and negative realm of disasters and development. Positive realm is that disaster...