Citizenship has been defined by Margaret (2008, p.53) as a “state of being a citizen of a particular social, political, national, or human resource community “. The term describing all citizens as a whole is citizenry. In law, citizenship denotes a link between an individual and a state. Under international law, citizenship is synonymous to nationality, although the two may have different meanings under national law. A person who does not have citizenship in any state is stateless. Citizenship is most closely identified with being a member of a particular nation which entitles persons to certain rights and obligations, Taylor suggests citizenship as a theory states that citizenship to include “ 1). social rights and responsibilities: 2). the development of policies and implementation with regards to rights and responsibilities as a citizenship. 3). Social forces that produce such practices. 4). social arrangements where benefits are disturbed to different fractions of society”. (Taylor 1994, p. 476). This essay will research and explore the concepts of citizenship and the idea of social exclusion with particular reference to disabled people and the barriers disabled people face within society.
Within the terms of the discussion of Citizenship, J.E Bickenbach (1999 cited in the Disability studies handbook 2004, p. 565) identifies three main concepts of citizenship, “ civil (rights to all to have equal status within society with regards to equality within the legal system and law), political (the right to vote and work as an equal within society) and social rights (the rights to participate within daily social activities and the right to the basic welfare state entitlement). One of the key concepts of citizenship that have been recognised through J.E Bickenbach (1999) suggests that the approach to human rights for people with impairments within society which all, recognise each of us as equals within society and as citizens, Bickenham (1999) suggests within the notion of citizenship that it has been common for decades to identify the “human rights approach” to disability advocacy as the single most important development in the struggle for equal opportunities and participation for people with impairments within society as citizens.
Although true enough it is important to be clear on what the human rights approach and policy is, what it entails and how it manifests itself in legal and policy terms. The two main concepts of the legal issues in terms of people with impairments towards their citizenship and human rights around the world can be seen as a hard question to answer but people with impairments have chosen the top two issues to be discussed of which best fit in with current citeria and discrimination: 1). The relative merits and drawbacks to a voluntary as to an opposed to enforceable legal approach to human rights and citizenship ideologies and 2).Whether we should be content with the current antidiscrimination focus as a long term strategy. Furthermore Bickenbach (1999) suggests that a legal and policy approach, which emphasizes the universality of disability, rather than as a special, minority status, has much to recommend itself as a basis for theory and practice of disability human rights. Basically we are all human no matter what current impairment or impairment we might acquire in the future therefore we are all citizenships so we should all be entitled to equal human rights.
Dwyer, 2004 suggests that not everyone especially people with impairments within terms of citizenship in society get to enjoy the basic rights nevertheless are expected to “adhere to certain obligations, responsibilities and duties on the basis of citizenship” (Dwyer, 2004, p. 113)
Oliver (1996) states that people with impairments and their organizations have long campaigned for equal rights as...