his instrument displays the speed of the vehicle in kmph. An opaque disc is mounted on the spindle attached to the front wheel of the vehicle. The disc has ten equidistant holes on its periphery. On one side of the disc an infrared LED is fixed and on the opposite
side of the disc, in line with the IR LED, a phototransistor is mounted. IC LM324 is wired as a comparator. When a hole appears between the IR LED and phototransistor, the phototransistor conducts. Hence the voltage at collector of the phototransistor and in-
verting input of LM324 go ‘low’, and thus output of LM324 becomes logic ‘high’. So rotation of the speedometer cable results in a pulse (square wave) at the output of LM324. The frequency of this waveform is proportional to the speed. Let ‘N’ be the number of pulses in time ‘t’ seconds and numerically equal to the number of kilometres per hour (kmph). For a vehicle such as LML Vespa, with a wheel circumference of 1.38 metres, and number of pulses equal to 10 per revolution, we get the relationship: N pulses = N kmph t = = Nx1000 metres per second 3600x1.38 Nx1000x10 pulses per second 3600x1.38
Therefore, time ‘t’ in seconds = 0.4968 second. As shown in the timing diagram, at t=0, output of astable flip-flop IC1(a) i.e. ½556 goes low and triggers monostable multivibrator IC1(b) i.e. ½556. Pulse width of monostable IC1(b) = 0.5068 sec. For IC1(a), t(on) = 0.51 sec. and t(off)= 0.01 sec. The outputs of IC1(a) and IC1(b), and the signal from the transducer section are ANDed. The number of pulses counted during the gating period (0.4968 sec.) is the speed N in kmph (kilometres per hour). At the end of the gating period, output ‘B’ of monostable IC1(b) goes low and B goes high. The rising edge of B is used to enable the quad ‘D’ flip-flops IC6 and IC7. At this instant, i.e. at t=0.5068 sec., the number (speed) N will be latched corresponding to the ‘D’ flip-flops and displayed. At t=0.52 sec.,...