True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

1. The voltages in digital electronics are continuously variable. False 2. A digital system with 4 inputs can have any input combination represented by a hexadecimal numeral. True 3. Frequency is the number of times that a periodic waveform repeats per second. True 4. The period of a waveform can be found by 1/frequency. True 5. The falling edge of a signal is the transition from a HIGH to a LOW. True 6. The Fall Time of a signal is the time required to fall from the 95% point to the 5% point of the signal. False 7. The frequency of an a periodic waveform can be found by measuring a signal from one rising edge to the next rising edge. False (doubt! because of wording “an a periodic”, I’m assuming it to be aperiodic i.e not periodic) 8. A digital system with 2 inputs has 4 possible input combinations. True 9. We want the number of digital samples to be as large as possible to more accurately reproduce analog audio waveforms. True 10. The MSB is typically the rightmost bit in a binary number. False Numeric Response

1. What is the binary number which represents a decimal 4? Answer: 1002
2. If a digital system has 5 inputs, how many possible input combinations are there? Answer: 32
3. What is the decimal value of the hexadecimal number 777? Answer: 191110
4. What is the decimal value of the binary number 1001001001001? Answer: 468110
5. What is the binary value of the decimal number 2827?
Answer: 1011000010112
6. What is the decimal value of the binary number 11011011011? Answer: 175510
7. What is the decimal value of the hexadecimal number 999? 245710
8. What is the hexadecimal value of the binary number 10110100101100000? Answer: 1696016
9. What is the binary value of the hexadecimal number 1011? 100000001000110
10. Write the sequence of 8 bit numbers from 10101010...

...EEN1036 Digital Logic Design
Chapter 4 part I Simplification of Switching Function
1
Objective
s s s
s
Simplifying logic circuit Minimization using Karnaugh map Using Karnaugh map to obtain simplified SOP and POS expression Five-variable Karnaugh map
2
Simplifying Logic Circuits
• • •
A
A Boolean expression for a logic circuit may be reduced to a simpler form The simplified expression can then be used to implement a circuit equivalent to the original circuit Consider the following example:
B C
A B C + A BC
Y
AB C + AB C
Y = A B C + A BC + AB C + AB C
3
Continue ...
Checking for common factor: Y = A B C + A BC + AB C + AB C
= A C ( B + B ) + AB (C + C )
Reduce the complement pairs to ‘1’
Y = A C ( B + B ) + AB (C + C ) = A C + AB
Draw the circuit based on the simplified expression
A B C
Y
4
Continue ...
•
A
Consider another logic circuit:
B C
Y
Y = C( A + B + C ) + A + C
Convert to SOP expression:
Y = C( A + B + C ) + A + C = AC + B C + AC
Checking for common factor:
Y = A(C + C ) + B C = A + BC
5
Continue ...
• • Simplification of logic circuit algebraically is not always an easy task The following two steps might be useful: i. The original expression is convert into the SOP form by repeated application of DeMorgan’s theorems and multiplication of terms ii. The product terms are then checked for common factors, and factoring is performed wherever possible
6...

...MCA 102 DIGITAL SYSTEMS & LOGIC DESIGN
Module1 - Number systems and code. Number systems - Efficiency of number system, Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimalconversion from one to another- Binary addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, representation of signed numbers, addition and subtraction using 2’s complement and I’s complement. Binary codes - BCD code, Excess 3 code, Gray code, Alphanumeric code, Error detection codes, Error correcting code. Module II - Logic Gates and Boolean Algebra. Logic Gates - Basic logic gates- AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, Exclusive OR, Exclusive NOR gates- Logic symbols, truth table and timing diagrams. Boolean Algebra - Basic laws and theorems , Boolean functions, truth table, minimization of boolean function using K map method, Realization using logic gates and universal gates. Module III - Combinational and Sequential Logic Circuits. Combinational circuits - Half adder, Full Adder, Parallel binary adder, Subtracter, Magnitude Comparator, Decoders, Encoders, Multiplexers, Demultiplexers, Parity bit generator, PLA. Sequential circuits - Flip Flops – RS, JK, T and D Flip Flops, Edge triggered Flip Flops, Master slave Flip Flops. Module IV - Registers and counters. Registers - Serial in serial out, Serial in Parallel out, Parallel in serial out, Parallel in Parallel out registers, Bidirectional shift registers, universal shift registers. Counters - Synchronous and asynchronous counters, UP/DOWN counters, Modulo-N Counters,...

...Digitalelectronics, or digital (electronic) circuits, represent signals by discrete bands ofanalog levels, rather than by a continuous range. All levels within a band represent the same signal state. Relatively small changes to the analog signal levels due to manufacturing tolerance, signal attenuation or parasitic noise do not leave the discrete envelope, and as a result are ignored by signal state sensing circuitry.
In most cases the number of these states is two, and they are represented by two voltage bands: one near a reference value (typically termed as "ground" or zero volts) and a value near the supply voltage, corresponding to the "false" ("0") and "true" ("1") values of the Boolean domain respectively.
Digital techniques are useful because it is easier to get an electronic device to switch into one of a number of known states than to accurately reproduce a continuous range of values.
Digitalelectronic circuits are usually made from large assemblies of logic gates, simple electronic representations of Boolean logic functions.
Advantages
An advantage of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits is that signals represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise.[2] For example, a continuous audio signal transmitted as a sequence of 1s and 0s, can be reconstructed without error,...

...Advantages of Digital Circuits
Name:
Instructor:
Institution:
Introduction
Digital circuits are circuits that use signals in digital form instead of analog forms. One distinctive feature of a digital signal is that it assumes discrete values, most of the time two values. A digital signal takes time to change from one value to another, and assumes intermediate values during transmission (Verma). Steady values are slightly inaccurate. Voltages within certain ranges are guaranteed to be interpreted as certain permitted values. In this technological era, digital circuits are more preferred in industries because of the many advantages they possess. Advantages range from good transmission due to low chances of being interrupted, to high efficiency.
Digital circuits also have disadvantages too but this assignment focuses more on advantages. Some of the notable disadvantages include use of more energy, hence more production of heat, they are more expensive due to high power consumption especially when in low qualities. This is just to mention a few.
Advantages of Digital Circuits
There are several advantages of digital circuits. These are the same features that make these circuits unique and efficient;
a) Signal Transmission Without Degradation
Degradation when a signal is...

...ANALOGUE & DIGITAL SIGNALS
Name: - BHAVESH PATWAL
Tutor : - JAY PATEL
Date: - 20th November, 2012
I . Analogue Signals : -
Analogue signal is a form of transmitting data such as voice, image or video using continuous signals. This is a relatively inexpensive way to transmit data. Analogue communications are usually sent via twisted cables or fibre optic cables and they are transmitted via a carrier signal which is set at a specific frequency.
The primary disadvantage of analogue signalling is that any system has noise – i.e., random unwanted variation. As the signal is copied and re-copied, or transmitted over long distances, these apparently random variations become dominant
Living examples: What we speak is analog signal.
II. Digital Signals : -
Digital Signals are much more common and desirable method of transmitting data. Digital information is put into a synchronized order to enable transmission. The information is then decoded when it reaches its final destination. There are not many opportunities for errors when using this method so information arrives intact and in the best quality possible.
One more aspect about digital signals they are binary digits that is they are represented using bits (Binary digits)
Until recently, most telephone, radio and television signals were sent via analogue communication devices and are still used in circumstances where...

...EEE 311: Digital Signal Processing-I
Course Teacher: Dr. Newaz Md. Syfur Rahim
Associated Professor,
Dept of EEE, BUET, Dhaka 1000.
Syllabus: As mentioned in your course calendar
Reference Books:
1. Digital Signal Processing: Principles, Algorithms, and Applications – John G. Proakis
2. Digital Signal Processing: A Practical Approach – Emmanuel C. Ifeachor
3. Schaum’s Outlines of Digital Signal Processing
4. Modern Digital Signal Processing – Roberto Cristi
Course Outlines:
This course will cover Chapter 1 through 5 of Proakis’s and Chapter 5 through 7 of Ifeachor’s book.
Signals Systems and Signal Processing
A signal is a function of one or more independent variables that usually represent time and/ or space. A signal contains some kind of information that can be conveyed, displayed, or manipulated. Examples of signals of particular interests are:
* Speech, which we encounter in telephony, radio, and everyday life.
* Biomedical signals, such as electrocardiogram
* Sound and music, such as reproduced by CD player
* Video and image, which people watch on television
* Radar signals, which are used to determine the range and bearing of distant targets
A system is a practical device that performs an operation on a signal to modify the signal or extract additional information from it. A system may be electrical, mechanical, thermal, hydraulic...

...Advantages of digital communication:
1. It is fast and easier.
2. No paper is wasted.
3. The messages can be stored in the device for longer times, without being damaged, unlike paper files that easily get damages or attacked by insects.
4. Digital communication can be done over large distances through internet and other things.
5. It is comparatively cheaper and the work which requires a lot of people can be done simply by one person as folders and other such facilities can be maintained.
6. It removes semantic barriers because the written data can be easily chaned to different languages using software.
7. It provides facilities like video conferencing which save a lot of time, money and effort.
1.Circutary becomes simpler than AC.
2.Highly resistive to noise as we are dealing with binary digits.
3.Highly secure.
4.Can travel long distances and can store data for long time.
5.AS we have regenerative repeaters & reconstruction filters in the receiver section we can extract original signal transmitted
6. Error correcting and detecting is easy.
7. A comman format is used for different kind of message signal such as speech signal and video signal.
8. Flexibility in configuring digital communication. digital hardware implimentation is flexible and permit the use of LSI. microprocessors anmd digital switches.
Disadvantages:
1. It is unreliable as the messages cannot be...

...Analog and Digital Comparison
NTC/362
February 3, 2014
Dr. Phillip Coleman
Running head: ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMPARISON
1
ANALOG AND DIGITAL COMPARISON
6
Analog and Digital Comparison
Telecommunications is a term used to describe any type of long distance communication techniques. In the digital age, telecommunications describes the use of electronic devices that facilitate communications between people, computers, and other machines. There are several technologies used today that enable these communications and allow them to perform efficiently. The basis behind these technologies is the process of converting analog signals, or signals that can have an infinite number of values that encapsulates the data stream, to digital signals, signals that generally can only have a value of zero or one, and digital signals to analog signals.
There are many different devices in use that convert the different signal types and transmit the data. Some of the devices are used to facilitate longer distance communications and others are used to allow short distance communications. An example of the digital-to-analog conversion process is the use of a data modem to convert the digital signals that a computer generates to an analog signal that can be transmitted over the twisted pair telephone lines. This is also an example of...