Differential Diagnosis of Schizophrenia, Affective Disorder and Organic Brain Damage with the Help of Wechsler Scale

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DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA, AFFECTIVE DISORDER AND ORGANIC BRAIN DAMAGE WITH THE HELP OF WECHSLER SCALE

Shakti Mehrotra

Dr. Ambalika Sinha

* Scientist ‘F’ Selection Centre East, Allahabad. **Assistant Professor, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences MNNIT, Allahabad

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic value of Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised ( WAIS-R ) and Weschler Adult Performance Intelligence Scale Revised (WAPIS - PR). The sample consisted of 80 subjects in four subgroups namely; Schizophrenic, Manic, Depressive and Organic brain damage patients. Subjects were selected on the basis of purposive sampling and were matched for age, sex and education. Results suggested that schizophrenic group differed significantly from manic and depressive groups, but schizophrenics did not differ significantly from organic brain damage group. Manic group and depressive group differed significantly from Organic brain damage group.

Key words: Diagnostic value, Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale, Schizophrenic, Manic, Depressive and brain damage patients.

INTRODUCTION
Wechsler Adult Intelligence scale is one of the best-standardized and widely used tests in clinical practice today. It provides rich information above and beyond intelligence score (Robin, 1965 & Frank, 1970). From the very beginning, Wechsler introduced his test not only as a ‘Psychometric–instrument’, but as a ‘Psycho diagnostic device’ (Matrozzo, 1972) as well. The test provides information regarding the tested individual’s mode of reaction, his special abilities or disabilities and very frequently some indication of his personality traits. The performance of subject on individual scales is of interpretive significance. The scale has its projective aspects also. How far, this assumption is correct and whether data gleaned from other countries are equally applicable in Indian context are two important motives to conduct this study.

In India, Prabha Ramalingaswamy (1974) had adapted the performance scale of ‘Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale’. The adapted subtests are ‘Picture Completion’, ‘Digit Symbol’, ‘Block Design’,’ Picture Arrangement’ and ‘Object Assembly’. In 1983 verbal scale has also been adapted by I.C.M.R. multi centric project. This verbal scale is in Hindi and only 4 subtests were taken for adaptation. These sub tests are ‘information’, ‘Digit Span’, ’Arithmetic’ and ‘Comprehension’. In the present study an attempt has been made to find out its diagnostic value.

MATERIAL AND METHOD

Sample
The sample included 80 subjects divided into 4 groups, Schizophrenics (N=20), Manics (N=20), Depressives (N=20) and a Organic brain damage group (N=20). Selection was based on purposive sampling. The clinical population was selected from ‘Central Institute of Psychiatry. The four groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, sex and education.

Tools

A Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Hindi, verbal) standardized by I.C.M.R.(1983) and Wechsler Adult performance Intelligence Scale (Form – PR) standardized by Prabha Ramalingaswamy (1974) were given to all subjects.

Each subject was interviewed before the administration of test and rapport was tried to establish. WAIS–R (Verbal) Hindi and WAPIS were administered on the subjects individually.

Results and Discussion

The present study shows a distinct pattern of performance on WAIS-R by Schizophrenic, Manic, and depressive and organic brain damage groups. ‘t’ test was used to see differences between groups.

Table I : ‘t’ values of the scores of four groups on verbal subtests.

|Groups |Information |Digit span |Arithmetic |Comprehension | |Schizophrenic Vs Manic |3.74** |0.64 |0.39 |2.95**...
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