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1899
CONSTITUTION OF THE
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
(MALOLOS CONVENTION)
The President of the Council,
Apolinario Mabini.

PREAMBLE
We, the Representatives of the Filipino people, lawfully covened, in order to establish justice, provide for common defense, promote the general welfare, and insure the benefits of liberty, imploring the aid of the Sovereign Legislator of the Universe for the attainment of these ends, have voted, decreed, and sanctioned the following:

POLITICAL CONSTITUTION

TITLE I
THE REPUBLIC
Article 1. The political association of all Filipinos constitutes a nation, whose state shall be known as the Philippine Republic Article 2. The Philippine Republic is free and independent
Article 3. Sovereignty resides exclusively in the people.

TITLE II
THE GOVERNMENT
Article 4. The Government of the Republic is popular, representative, alternative, and responsible, and shall exercise three distinct powers: namely, the legislative, the executive, and the judicial. Any two or more of these three powers shall never be united in one person or cooperation, nor the legislative power vested in one single individual.

TITLE III
RELIGION
Article 5. The State recognizes the freedom and equality of all religions, as well as the separation of the Church and the State.

TITLE IV
THE FILIPINOS AND THEIR NATIONAL
AND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS
Article 6. The following are Filipinos:
1. All persons born in the Philippine territory. A vessel of Philippine registry is considered, for this purpose, as part of Philippine territory. 2. Children of a Filipino father or mother, although born outside of the Philippines. 3. Foreigners who have obtained certification of naturalization. 4. Those who, without such certificate, have acquired a domicile in any town within Philippine territory. It is understood that domicile is acquired by uninterrupted residence for two years in any locality within Philippine territory, with an open abode and known occupation, and contributing to all the taxes imposed by the Nation. The condition of being a Filipino is lost in accordance with law. Article 7. No Filipino or foreigner shall be detained nor imprisoned except for the commission of a crime and in accordance with law. Article 8. All persons detained shall be discharged or delivered to the judicial authority within 24 hours following the act of detention. All detentions shall be without legal effect, unless the arrested person is duly prosecuted within 72 hours after delivery to a competent court. The accused shall be duly notified of such proceeding within the same period. Article 9. No Filipino shall be imprisoned except by virtue of an order by a competent court. The order of imprisonment shall be ratified or confirmed within 72 hours following the said order, after the accused has been heard. Article 10. No one shall enter the dwelling house of any Filipino or a foreigner residing in the Philippines without his consent except in urgent cases of fire, inundation, earthquake or similar dangers, or by reason of unlawful aggression from within, or in order to assist a person therein who cries for help. Outside of these cases, the entry into the dwelling house of any Filipino or foreign resident in the Philippines or the search of his papers and effects can only be decreed by a competent court and executed only in the daytime. The search of papers and effects shall be made always in the presence of the person searched or of a member of his family and, in their absence, of two witnesses resident of the same place. However, when a criminal caught in fraganti should take refuge in his dwelling house, the authorities in pursuit may enter into it, only for the purpose of making an arrest. If a criminal should take refuge in the dwelling house of a foreigner, the consent of a latter must first be obtained. Article 11. No Filipino shall be compelled to change his residence or domicile except by virtue of a final...
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