Determination of Lead and Cadmium Contents in Sausages from Iran

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RESEARCH ARTICLE
Determination of lead and cadmium contents in sausages from Iran A. Abedi a, R. Ferdousi a,, S. Eskandari b, F. Seyyedahmadian a, R. Khaksar c a National Nutrition & Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran (info@nnftri.ac.ir) b Food and Drug Control Laboratories (FDCLs) – Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center (FDLRC), Ministry of Health and Medical Education, P.O. Box 11136-15911, Tehran, Iran c Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 19395-4741, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
The contents of lead and cadmium in five major brands of six types of cooked beef sausages consumed in Iran were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) after hydrogen peroxide/nitric acid digestion. The metal contents in the samples, expressed in µg kg-1 wet weight, varied from 24.00 to 158.66 with an average value of 53.54 for lead and from 2.23 to 13.50 with an average value of 5.7 for cadmium. The highest lead and cadmium concentrations were obtained from German sausage (158.66 µg kg-1; brand B) and Hot dog (13.50 µg kg-1; brand D), respectively. The results of this study indicate that the sausages from Iran have concentrations below the permitted levels for these toxic metals. The daily dietary intakes and the percentage contribution of the two considered metals to provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) were calculated for sausages. Keywords: Lead; Cadmium; Cooked beef sausage; Dietary intake; Tehran

 Corresponding author. E-mail address: drferdousi@sbmu.ac.ir
1.Introduction
Industrial evolutions, the intense use of raw materials and agricultural technology have all somehow improved our lifestyle while simultaneously polluting the natural environment. Pollution of the environment with heavy metals, which is recognized in most countries of the world, is a serious problem (Abou-Arab, 2001). Some of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium are toxic, stable and not easily biodegradable that can be very harmful even at low concentration when ingested over a long time period. The ingestion of food is known as an important way of exposure to heavy metals (Ganjavi, Ezzatpanah , Givianrad, & Shams, 2010). Metal contamination can take place during the handling and processing of foods, from the farm to the point of consumption. Thus, besides the growth of plants in contaminated soils and the feeding of animals on feeds containing toxic metals, other factors may contribute to food contamination. Contact between food and metal, such as processing equipment, storage and packaging containers, is a significant source of metal in food (Nasreddine & Parent-Massin, 2002). Because of nutritional value and economic advantage, variety and facility of preparation, meat products are popular food source in most countries of the world. Thus, it is necessary to enhance safety and health of meat products because of increasing consumption of these products (Demirezen & Uruc, 2006). In Iran, meat products are mainly emulsion-type cooked beef sausages that are made from meat, water or ice, oil, salt, spices, gluten and other additives under a specific technology. In recent years, much attention has been focused on the concentrations of heavy metals in fish, chicken, meat and meat products in order to check for those hazards to human health (Abou-Arab, 2001; Demirbas, 1999; Demirezen & Uruc, 2006; Emami Khansari, Ghazi-Khansari, & Abdollahi, 2004; Grujic, 2000; Oymak, Tokalıog˘lu, Yılmaz, Kartal, & Aydın, 2009; Tuzen & Soylak, 2007; Uluozlu, Tuzen, Mendil, & Soylak, 2009). According to studies, heavy metals especially lead and cadmium can enter the body of cattle and sheep from eating forage and drinking water containing these toxic metals and accumulate in the liver, muscle and kidneys (Falandysz 1991; Niemi, Venalainen, Hirve ,...
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