A Brief History of Intel's desktop processor
CPU is the most important part in computers. If compared to a person, computer's heart is CPU. Processing information in accordance with its word length, CPU can be divided into: 4-bit processors, 8-bit processors, 16-bit processors, 32-bit processors and 64-bit processors, etc. Intel Corporation was founded in 1968, and then became a leader of the IT Industry. November 15th, 1971, Intel's engineer Hoff invented the world's first commercial microprocessor 4004.The breakthrough was regarded as a milestone of global IT industry. The 4-bit microprocessor only processes 45 instructions per second, and runs at the speed of 108KHz, which is even much slower than that of the world's first computer ENIAC in 1946. But it has 2300 integrated transistors, much more than those of ENIAC. November 15th, 1971, Intel introduced the 4004 to global market, each priced at 200 U.S. dollars. Numbered as 4004, its first "4" is on behalf of that the chip is a customer number, while the last "4" stands for Intel's fourth production of custom chips. The digital code has been used till now. Hoff finally achieved his dream---he accomplished the design of the world's first microprocessor, the integration of more than 2,000 transistors, an invention of the world's first large scale integrated circuits 4004. 1972: 8008 Microprocessor
Some analysts used to say the 4004's processing capacity was limited, and not enough to arise people's interest. However, when just one year after Intel introduced its 8008 microprocessor, the industry's eyes were entirely focused on it.8008's frequency is 200Khz, the total number of whose transistors reached 3500, capable of handling 8-bit data. Nevertheless, it was the first time that Intel had used the processor instruction techniques. 8008, whose performance is twice of that of the 4004, with 3500 transistors and a speed of 200KHz, was installed in a device called the Mark-8 in 1974, which was one of the first home computers. In 1974, Intel introduced 8080 Microprocessor to the market, the forerunner of the processor, and then immediately aroused the IT industry. As a result of a complex instruction set and 40-pin package, 8080's processing capacity was significantly improved, and its function was 10 times per second to calculate 290,000 instructions. The number of transistors amounts up to 6000, running at the speed of 2MHz. At the same time, the advantage of microprocessors was recognized by the industry, so more companies began to enter this area, soon causing a fierce competition. At that time Intel was competing against the RCA (Radio Corporation of America), Honeywell, Fairchild, National Semiconductor, AMD, Motorola and Zilog Corporation. In 1978, Intel introduced its first 16-bit microprocessor 8086. The same year Intel introduced even better 8088 performance processors. All the processors have 29000 transistors, whose speed of calculation can be divided into 5MHz, 8MHz, 10MHz.Internal data bus and external data bus are 16-bit, with address bus of 20-bit and also an 1MB addressable memory. At the same time, Intel successfully sold 8088 to IBM, and then IBM introduced the first personal computer PC with Intel's 8088 chip, making the 8088 became the well-known IBM PC's brain. With the popularity of personal computers, Intel came to be known in the world. 8088's great success made Intel enter Fortune 500 list. The "Fortune" magazine named the company "one of the 70 largest commercial miracles". 1982: The last 16-bit processor-Intel's 80286 microprocessor 80286 (also known as 286) with 16-bit word length, integrates 143,000 transistors, with 6MHz, 8MHz, 10MHz, 12.5 MHz frequency in four products. 286 is the first CPU which had full compatibility with other Intel processors, enabling it to run the software prepared for the processors of its previous generation. 1985: 80386 Intel's first generation of 32-bit processors This is...
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