Design Lab Chemistry Surface Area

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Design Lab #17: Reaction Rate - Calcium Carbonate & Hydrochloric acid Design D:

Introduction: In this experiment calcium carbonate will be put into a flask and mixed with hydrochloric acid to produce calcium chloride, water and carbon dioxide. The formula for this reaction is: CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) → CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to determine how the surface area of CaCO3(s) affects the rate of reaction by measuring the volume of CO2(g) produced with time.

Background: When solid reactants are mixed with liquid reactants only the particles on the surface of the solid will have direct contact, or collide, to the other liquid             reactant particles. When there is more surface area there will be more solid             particles exposed to collide with other liquid particles. When there are small             pieces of the solid reactant, the rate would be faster than if it were larger             pieces with the same mass. There will be more collisions per unit of time,             which means reaction will precede faster.

Variables:
Independent (Changed)
1) Surface area of CaCO3
Dependent (Measured)
1) Volume of gaseous product formed (CO2(g))
Controlled (Constant)
1) Mass of CaCO3
2) Temperature of reaction
3) Concentration of HCl
4) Volume of HCl
5) Time intervals for recording volume

Apparatus: 100 mL Conical flaskSingle-holed rubber stopper
90 g of CaCO3 chips90 g of CaCO3 powder
90 g of CaCO3 tablets100 mL gas syringe
100 mL graduated cylinderDigital Stopwatch
450 ml 1.0 M HCl Stand & Clamp
Electronic balance

Safety Procedures:
1) Wear safety goggles for protection.
2) Handle HCl acid with care. If splashes on skin wash immediately 3) Always point gas syringe downwards.

Procedure:
1) Set up equipment for experiment. Set up the...
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