Jesse Bober P.6
Topic 1- Describe the three major phases of the english language and the major changes that happended
When England was established there were several kingdoms and the most advanced one was Nurthumbria. It was this period that the best of the Old English literature was written , including the epic poem Beowulf. In the 8th century Nurthumbrian power declined , West Saxons became the leading power. The most famous king of the West Saxons was Alfred the Great. He founded and established schools, translated or caused to be translated many books from Latin in to English. After many years of hit-and-run raids between the European kingdoms, the Norseman landed in the year of 866 and later the east coast of the island was Norseman’s. Norse language effected the English considerably. Norse wasn’t so different from English and English people could understand Norseman. There were considerable interchanges and word borrowings sky,give,law,egg,outlaw,leg,ugly,talk. Also borrowed pronouns like they,their,them. It is supposed also that the Norseman influenced the sound structure and the grammar of English. Old English had some sound which we don’t know have now. In grammar , Old English was much more highly inflected that Middle English because there were case endings for nouns, more person and number endings of words and a more complicated pronoun systems, various endings for adjectives. In vocabulary Old English is quiet different from Middle English. Most of the Old English words are native English which weren’t borrowed from other languages. On the other hand Old English contains borrowed words coming from Norse and Latin. Between 1100-1200 many important changes took place in the structure of English and Old English became Middle English. The political event which effected the administration system and language was the Norman Conquest. In 1066 they crossed the Channel and they became the master of England. For the next...
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