Dengue hemorrhagic fever, also called breakbone fever, is caused by a virus found in tropical and subtropical areas and transmitted by a mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 3 to 6 days after the bite. Signs and symptoms include fever, severe joint and muscle pain, and rash. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a more severe presentation of dengue fever caused by the same mosquito bite.
A strain of Arbovirus caused Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito.
Characteristics of an Aedes aegypti mosquito:
3. Live in stagnant water
4. In urban area
Additional Signs and Symptoms
1. Rapid deterioration Deterioration occurs after 2–5 days of the typical symptoms of dengue fever 2. Irritability Associated with rapid deterioration
3. Restlessness Associated with rapid deterioration
4. Low blood pressure Related to hemorrhage
5. Weak and rapid pulse Related to hemorrhage
6. Petechial rash Related to hemorrhage
Stages of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever
• Grade I: fever + Herman's sign (flushes and redness of skin with lighter color at the center of the rash) • Grade II: Grade I symptoms + bleeding (epistaxis or nosebleeding, gingival bleeding, hematemesis or upper gastrointestinal bleeding; e.g: vomiting of blood), and melena or dark stool. • Grade III: Grade II + Circulatory Collapse (hypotension, cold clammy skin and weak pulse) • Grade IV: Grade III + Shock.
Diagnostic Tests and Management
1. Complete blood count to detect elevated white blood cell count, decreased platelet count (thrombocytopenia), and increased hematocrit. 2. Blood test for antibodies.
3. Ask the client about a history of travel to tropical or subtropical areas. 4. Do not give Aspirin because it contains at antiplatelet property which prmotes bleeding. 5. Treatment is solely supportive and includes:
• Analgesics (not aspirin) for fever and muscles aches. • Replacement of plasma or plasma expanders.
What is dengue fever?
Dengue fever is a disease caused by a family of viruses that are transmitted by mosquitoes. It is an acute illness of sudden onset that usually follows a benign course with symptoms such as headache, fever, exhaustion, severe muscle and joint pain, swollen glands (lymphadenopathy), and rash. The presence (the "dengue triad") of fever, rash, and headache (and other pains) is particularly characteristic of dengue. Other signs of dengue fever include bleeding gums, severe pain behind the eyes, and red palms and soles. Dengue (pronounced DENG-gay) strikes people with low levels of immunity. Because it is caused by one of four serotypes of virus, it is possible to get dengue fever multiple times. However, an attack of dengue produces immunity for a lifetime to that particular serotype to which the patient was exposed. Dengue goes by other names, including "breakbone" or "dandy fever." Victims of dengue often have contortions due to the intense joint and muscle pain, hence the name breakbone fever. Slaves in the West Indies who contracted dengue were said to have dandy fever because of their postures and gait. Dengue hemorrhagic fever is a more severe form of the viral illness. Manifestations include headache, fever, rash, and evidence of hemorrhage in the body. Petechiae (small red or purple blisters under the skin), bleeding in the nose or gums, black stools, or easy bruising are all possible signs of hemorrhage. This form of dengue fever can be life-threatening and can progress to the most severe form of the illness, dengue shock syndrome. What areas are at high risk for contracting dengue fever?
Dengue is prevalent throughout the tropics and subtropics. Outbreaks have occurred recently in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Cuba, and Central America. Cases have also been imported via tourists returning from areas with widespread dengue, including Tahiti, Singapore, the...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document