Class Two – Cultural Styles • • • • • Universalism vs. Particularism Individualism vs. Collectivism Neutral vs. Emotional Achievement vs. Ascription Dialogue: making a joint hiring decision including compensation
Read: • Trompenaars, Fons and Hampden-Turner, Charles. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Global Business (2nd edition). New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998, pages: 1-10, 29-36, 49-53, 68-75, 80-81, 105-111, 121-122. Agenda • • • • • • • • Welcome. Explanation of End of Course Paper Assignment Theories and Themes Universalism vs. Particularism Individualism vs. Collectivism (Communtarianism) Neutral vs. Emotional Achievement vs. Ascription Cross-Cultural Dialogue Next Week’s Assignment
Theories and Themes A brief overview of the theorists whose ideas are the framework for this course. Late 1950s – Edward Hall • Anthropologist. World War II -- U.S. Army in Europe and the Philippines. Later, Director of the Foreign Service Institute training program. He observed first hand the many difficulties created by failures of intercultural communication. • Proxemics – human use of space within the context of culture • Personal space and community (town) space • Also looked at monochromic and polychromic time Late 1960s – Geert Hofstede Founded and managed personnel research dept of IBM Europe. • Surveyed 116,000 IBM employees in 40 countries on preferences around management style and work environment • 4 dimensions where differences by country were significant o power distance o uncertainty avoidance o individualism/collectivism Cross-Cultural L’ship Fall 2004 Page 1
o masculinity/femininity o later discussed a 5th dimension = long term view (Asia) Late 1980s Fons Trompenaars and Charles Hampden-Turner Consultants By 1998: 15 years of research – questionnaire based. Framework from Talcott Parsons, US Sociologist (Harvard 1927-1973) • 30 companies, 50...