Criminology in the Future
As the world changes, people change, new technology advances, and so does crime. Criminals look for new ways to commit crime and the “loop holes” in the laws. The justice system needs to stay on top of these new technologies to protect the people. With the advancement of technology, law officials have to follow the rules of law. Law Enforcement must keep these “liberties” in mind when fighting cybercrime. The Bill of Rights guarantees “civil liberties” to Americans. These include the freedom of speech, right to assemble and freedom of religion, the 1st Amendment right. The 5th Amendment protects Americans from self-incrimination, due process, double jeopardy on capital crimes, right to a fair trial and the limitation of seizure of property (Cornell University of Law, n.d.), these liberties the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments of the US Constitution. The 14th Amendment forbids states from denying a person “life, liberty or property, without due process of law” and “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (Library of Congress, n.d.). Law Enforcement has to keep these “liberties” in mind when fighting cybercrime. Cybercrime can be defined as “crime that involves the use of computers or the mini population of digital data as well as any violation of a federal or state cybercrime statute” (Schmalleger, 2012, P 309) The Internet has become a powerful source for information as well as communication. We depend on computers in almost every aspect of our lives. At work, much of our financials are done through the computer. We do not see the millions of dollars a company has but see the numbers generated by the Ledger. We can move money around to various banks and accounts
Criminology in the Future
without money in hand. At home, we use computers to our banking, pay bills even shopping. This creates easy access to our account numbers and our identities. With the advancement of technology, white collar crime has increased. Schmalleger (2012) defines white crime as “any violation of the criminal law committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation.” (p. 305) People of respectability are usually in “positions of authority” and hold the trust of their peers and clients. There are many forms of white collar crime. For example: bank fraud, embezzlement, insurance fraud, tax evasion, wire fraud, insider trading, and economic espionage. All of these crimes are a form of ethics violations. Merriam Webster defines ethic as “the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation”, “a set of moral principles: a theory or system of moral values.” Many professions today have a Professional Code of Conduct. The American Bar Association has “Model Rules of Professional Conduct.” JP Morgan Chase and Company’s Code of Ethics states it goal is to “promote honest and ethical conduct and compliance with the law.” (JP Morgan Chase and Company 2013) According to Schmalleger (2012) occupational crimes are “any act punishable by law that is committed through opportunity created in the course of an occupation which is legal” (p. 309). The use of computers has led to many white collar crimes and ethical violations. The corporate executive who filters money into off shore accounts for his own personal use has made an ethical violation. A tax preparer, which files false tax returns, is in violation, if they were electronically filed this an example of a computer crime. Mass-Marketing Fraud informs potential victims through e-mail that they many have won sweepstakes or a foreign lottery but in turn these criminal are looking for identity and financial information. Criminology in the Future
Future directions of crime fighting and its role in social policy implication Future directions are abstract; people who study the future, also called futurists, make predictions based upon our...