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Criminal Justice

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(J.Ken, 2006)COMING TO AMERICA—STRUGGLE AND TRANSACTION
Introduction
To understand contemporary policing in America it is necessary to understand its antecedents; we will gain a better understanding of this history by looking at its three eras. The police, said, are “to great extent, the prisoners of the past. Day-to-day practices are influenced by deeply ingrained traditions.” Another reason for analyzing historical developments and trends is that several discrete legacies have been transmitters to modern police agencies. In view of the significant historical impact on modern policing, it is necessary to turn back the clock to about A.D.900. Therefore, we begin with a brief history of the evolution of four primary criminal justice officers—sheriff, constable, coroner, and justice of the peace—from early England to the twentieth century in America (Ken, 2006).

English and Colonial Officers the Law:
All four of the primary criminal justice officials of early English-the sheriff, constable, coroner, and justice of the peace there was a lack of established practice in the United State. Accordingly, it is important to have a basic understanding of these offices, including their early functions in England and, later, in America. Following is a brief discussion of each (Ken, 2006). Sheriff:

The word sheriff is derived from the term shire reeve—shire meaning “county” and reeve meaning “agent of the king.” The shire reeve appeared in English before the Norman conquest of 1066. His job was to maintain law and order in the tithing. They followed a brand of English common Law, although the sheriff was never a popular officer in England and since the nineteenth centenary sheriff has had no police powers. When the office began, the sheriff assisted the king in fiscal, military and judicial affairs and was referred to as the “king’s steward.” The sheriff’s principal duties were to enforce laws, collect taxes and oversee elections.

CONSTABLE:
Like the sheriff, the...