Crime Result from an Interplay Between Nature and Nurture

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“Crime results from interplay between genes and environment”. Discuss

Group members:
Mungar Divya: 1243563
Jean-Benoit Marie: 1244848
Fangoa Madhvi: 1214674

Submitted to Miss Boodhun Komal on the 30th of October 2012

TABLE OF CONTENT
Pages 1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………..... 3 2. GENES…....…………………………………………………….....4 3. TWIN STUDIES…………………………………………………7 4. ADOPTION……………………………………………………....9 5. HORMONAL & CHROMOSONAL DEFFICIENCIES...........11

6. FAMILY………………………………………………………….17 7. POVERTY……………………………………………………….19 8. SCHOOL…………………………………………………………21 9. SCHOOL & SUBCULTURES………………………………….22 10. INTELLIGENT QUOTIENT…………………………………..25 11. LABELLING THEORY………………………………………..27 12. MEDIA…….……………………………………………………. 29 13. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………...31 14. ACKNOLEDGMENT…………………………………………...32 15. REFERENCES…………………………………………………..33

Introduction

Through time, in any society there has always been the interrelation between conformity and non-conformity. This has been a dynamic phenomenon in all societies whereby some individuals could at some point of their life choose to become criminals or not. The thing is each society defines its own perception of non-conformity which is directly affected by the pre-established norms or regulations of the particular dominant society. Through time the interest in Criminal behaviour has gone stronger and stronger. Many observed and made conclusions, devised theories and offered solutions to the different possible conducive reasons for an individual to engage in “rebellious” actions. The two main factors which were established by studies were the “Nature and Nurture” concepts. Those two were the object of many debates and interrogations by different experts like Albert Cohen, Cesare Lombroso and Howard Becker. But still today no one can describe the real sources of criminal behaviour without assuming the possible correlations between the Biological and Environmental factors.

GENES

Cesare Lombroso, the father of modern criminology, greatly influenced by the concept of natural selection initiated by Charles Darwin in the nineteenth century, developed in the 1870s the concept of ‘born criminals’. His theory shattered the notion of ‘free will’ of the Classical School of Thought and the social positivism theories developed based on the Chicago School. In l’Uomo Delinquente, Lombroso explained that those criminals can identified by distinct physical features, like sloping foreheads, bushy eyebrows, abnormally long arms or height. In his theory of evolutionary atavism, he clearly initiated the idea that criminal behavior does have biological and unchangeable roots.

With technological advances and new researches being carried out during the nineteenth century, many sociologist, psychologists and environmentalists ratified Lombroso’s theory. Indeed new techniques, like CT scan, PET scan, MRI scan, EEG, and SPECT, and new discoveries about hormonal misbalance are being used to diagnose brain anomalies In order to understand the connection between genes and crime and the numerous studies carried around the issue, we have to first understand what genes are. According to Oxford online dictionary, a gene is “a distinct sequence of nucleotides forming part of a chromosome, the order of which determines the order of monomers in a polypeptide or nucleic acid molecule which a cell (or virus) may synthesize.”

For us to understand why people behave in the way they do, one has to understand which part of the brain controls behaviour. In the early 19th century, the introduction of neuroimaging helped to understand the human brain structure and its functioning. it has revolutionized the scientific study of the nervous system, namely neuroscience, which has enabled many researchers like Raine and Yang(2006), Moffitt ( 2003),...
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