Cotton Plant

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  • Topic: Cotton, Gossypium, Fiber plants
  • Pages : 13 (3833 words )
  • Download(s) : 684
  • Published : June 14, 2012
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INTEGRATED TERM PROJECT

COTTON

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION.. .. .. .. .. .. .. … … … … … … … … … … … 1-3 Origin
History
COTTON-CULTIVATION… … … … … … … … …. … … ……4-6   Hardiness
Propagation
Cultivation
Processing
TYPES OF COTTON… … … … … … … … … … … … … …7-8 Gossypium hirsutum
Gossypium barbadense
Gossypium arboreum
Gossypium herbaceum
COTTON – WEAVING & SPINNING… … … … …. … … …9-12

USES OF COTTON… … … … … … … … … … … … … … 13-17 FOOD
MEDICINE
RECENT DEVELOPMENT… … … …. … … … … … … …18-20
INTRODUCTION
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective capsule, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium. The fiber is almost pure cellulose. The botanical purpose of cotton fiber is to aid in seed dispersal. The plant is a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, including the Americas, Africa, and India. The fiber most often is spun into yarn or thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile. The use of cotton for fabric is known to date to prehistoric times; fragments of cotton fabric dated from 5000 BC have been excavated in Mexico and Pakistan. Although cultivated since antiqu Current estimates for world production are about 25 million tonnes annually, accounting for 2.5% of the world's arable land. China is the world's largest producer of cotton, but most of this is used domestically. The United States has been the largest exporter for many years.ity, it was the invention of thecotton gin that so lowered the cost of production that led to its widespread use, and it is the most widely used natural fiber cloth in clothing today. South Asia has been at the centre of the world cotton trade for thousands of years. Cotton was first cultivated here and in South America. Origin

Image: Asian cotton, with detail of boll, watercolour on paper. Four species of cotton have been domesticated, but cultivars of the New World species G. hirsutum and G. barbadense dominate todays world markets. The two species used in ancient South Asia were G. herbaceum and G. arboreum. They originated in Africa and India and were developed as fibre crops at the same time the New World species were used for the same purposes. PLANT-PROFILE

Cotton (English)
Vadara, karpasi, tundikerisamudranta (Sanskrit)
Kapas, rui, tula (G. arboreum - Hindi, Bengal, Gujarat, Punjab). Botanical names: Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium herbaceum, Gossypium hirsutum Family: Malvaceae, the marsh mallow family

THE PLANT
Cotton plants can grow into shrubs 6 to 20 m high, although they are usually much smaller in cultivation. Leaves - broad and have three to five (or even seven) lobes. Fruits - creamy-white flowers are produced that later turn deep pink and fall off, leaving seed pods called 'cotton bolls'. Inside the bolls are seeds surrounded by fibres which are spun into thread for cloth. These cotton fibres are used to make 40% of the world's textiles. There are about 50 species of cotton, but only four are cultivated: G. hirsutum and G. barbadense from the New World, and G. herbaceum and G. arboreum from the Old World. All were domesticated independently for their fibre. 90% of the world's cotton is now produced from cultivars of G. hirsutum and G. barbadense. The Asian cottons have a minor economic role, mainly in South Asia

HISTORY
The earliest written reference to cotton in South Asia is in the Rig Veda...
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