Faculty Members ICFAI National College
Yamuna Nagar- Haryana
Corporate governance is defined as the system by which business entities are monitored, managed and controlled. Corporate governance practices have become an essential prerequisite for the ability to acquire and retain financial resources necessary for restructuring long term investment and sustainable growth. At one end of the spectrum the shareholders are the owners of business entity as they are risk takers. At the other end the managers or the executive director of the company who are in control of its day-to-day affairs. It is the responsibility of entire board of directors for smooth running of the company; corporate disclosure and governance requirements though relatively low in some countries, are also changing. Awareness of the developments of accounting standards, securities regulation, globalization of financial markets, world wide effect of corporate strategic alliance has led to some alternative view of governance process. A good structure of corporate governance is that encourages balanced relationship among shareholders, executive directors and the board of directors. The governance mechanism is shaped by its political, economic and social history and its legal frame work. In the beginning most of the countries found company to be the convenient form of organizations that enabled entrepreneurs to raise money from large number of investors. Shareholders start agitating only when they perceive that the company is being highly mismanaged and the shareholder value is getting destroyed. CORPORATE VALUES:
In recent years, There is a explosion of interest in corporate values like share holder value (Rapport,1986; Copeland, 1994; Jensen, 2000), stakeholder value (Freeman, 1984), customer value (Murphy et al., 1996), business ethics (Velasquez, 1998; Fort,2001), Corporate social responsibility (Carroll, 1999). But by and large, new value systems have been marketed as general solutions applicable to all kinds of business. These values are building blocks of corporate image. Corporate values are based on high ethical standards of managers and other employees. The firm values must ultimately be derived from the preferences or values of its stakeholders. In other words, corporate values are created when companies internalize the values of salient stakeholders. Stakeholders can influence a company directly through market transactions and contracts without imposing their values on the company, but transactional costs and information problems set a limit to use of contractual mechanisms. Internalization of stakeholder preference takes place in a hypothetical three-stage process as follows: 1. Allocation of ownership rights.
2. Board of composition.
3. The influence of important stakeholders
There is also a logical casual connection between the stages. Ownership determines the allocation of residual control rights across potential owners. The owners appoint board members and bestow the responsibilities to them. The board determines the nature of implicit contracts with the constituencies of the firm.
Figure1: Legal/ institutional/cultural regime
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE:
The Business Round table supports the following guiding principles: 1. The main duty of the board of directors of a public corporation is to select a Chief Executive Officer and to oversee the CEO and other senior management in the competent and ethical operation of the corporation on a day-to-day basis. 2. It is the responsibility of management to operate the corporation in an effective and ethical manner in order to produce value for stock holders. Senior management is expected to know how the corporation earns its income and what risk the corporation...