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STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF EPIFAUNA AT SUNGAI KILIM MANGROVES

MUHAMMAD AKMAL BIN ROSLANI 2007279738 SUPERVISOR: PROF MADYA NORSILA BT DAIM

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Introduction To Mangrove
 Mangroves are trees and shrubs that grow in

saline coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics.  Mainly between latitudes 25°N and 25°S  Mangroves include approximately 16 families and 40 to 50 species.  Mangrove ecosystems are diverse habitat with remarkable variety of flora and fauna adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of highly saline, frequently inundated and soft bottomed anaerobic mud.

Problem Statement
 Mangroves is the important ecosystems to the

earth and for some organisms.  Threats to mangrove:
- Reclamation of mangrove areas for various

developments (such as wharves, piers, airports, housing projects, etc.) - Pollution - Overexploitation / utilization

 Due to the destruction and disturbance at

mangroves ecosystem that created by human activities, then it will effect the distribution and also the number of the epifauna in one habitat.

Significance Of Study
 there is less study focusing on mangrove fauna

compared to the mangrove flora (Macintosh, 1988).  The importance of the mangroves itself such as ecological and economic benefits.  Mangroves is the habitat for many organisms such as sponges, epifauna, meiofauna, macrofauna, prawns, insects, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and etc.  Epifauna itself plays their important roles at the mangrove ecosystem.

Objectives Of The Study
 To determine the species diversity and

abundance of epifauna at Sungai Kilim
 To determine the effects of different zonation

on the distribution and the diversity of the epifauna at Sungai Kilim mangrove ecosystem

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Distribution Of Mangrove In Asia
 Asia has 25 countries with mangroves under a wide

range of climatic conditions.  Largest areas of mangrove in Asia

- Indonesia ( almost 60 % ) - Malaysia ( 11.7 % ) - Myanmar ( 8.8 % ) - Papua New Guinea ( 8.7 % ) - Thailand ( 5 % )  Others – (Philipines-2.2%), (Vietnam-2.1%), (Cambodia1.1%), (Brunei-0.3%), (Timor-0.03%), (Singapore-0.01%)  Sources :Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the Mangrove Guidebook for Southeast Asia 2007

Distribution Of Mangrove In Malaysia
 In Malaysia, mangroves cover some 600 000

hectares which is around 2% of the total land area. Mangroves on the west coast of Peninsula Malaysia are more widespread than the east coast.  This may be due to the different wave patterns of water bodies bordering the east and west coasts of the peninsula (Ong and Gong, 2001).  The eastern side of Peninsula Malaysia is bordered by the South China Sea that has larger and more energetic waves while the west coast is bordered by the Straits of Malacca that has a limited wind fetch and is thus relatively calmer (Mohd Lokman and Yaakob, 1995).

Factors Affecting The Distribution Of Mangrove
 There are around 80 species of mangroves

found throughout the world (Saenger et al., 1983).
 There are approximately 55 mangrove

species worldwide, with the center of diversity in Southeast Asia.

Mangrove Zonation
 Spatial variation in species occurrence and

abundance is frequently observed across environmental gradients in many types of ecosystems (Davis 1940; Smith 1992; Mendelssohn & McKee 2000).  Mangroves exhibit zonation patterns in a number of different geographic regions (Davis 1940; Smith 1992; Mendelssohn & McKee 2000).  In their simplest form, Southeast Asian mangroves

generally occur in five zones

Introduction Of Epifauna
 Refers to those invertebrates that live :

- on various substrates - such as lower tree trunks and the sediment surface - but which do not burrow in it  Also refers as a animals that live on the surface of a substrate, such as rocks, marine vegetation, or the sea or lake floor itself. ...
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