Constitution Laws Constitution

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PEDLIGS-Chapter 9 the confederation and Constitution (1776-1790)

People
Alexander Hamilton- saved convention in Maryland from failure by engineering the adoption of his report; called upon congress to summon a convention in Philadelphia next year not to deal with commerce; His speech on his plan= 1 delegate convinced; Joined John Jay & Madison in writing The Federalist

George Washington- elected chairman by demand; said, “We have probably had too good an opinion of human nature in forming our Confederation”

Ben Franklin- added the urbanity of an elder statesman though he was inclined to be indiscreetly talkative in his decline years; the convention assigned chaperones to Franklin to make sure he held his tongue

James Madison- made contributions so notable = “The father of the constitution” ; wrote federalist #1 and refuted that it is impossible to extend republican form of government over large territory

Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Thomas Paine- absent in convention because they were in Europe

Sam Adams and John Hancock- were absent because not elected by Mass.

Patrick Henry- not at convention because he was chosen by Virginia but declined to serve; professed to fee in fearsome doc. the death warrant of liberty

Dey of Algiers- drove delegates to their work to their work; was a founding father

Daniel Shays- frightened the conservative minded delegates; the specter of the recent outburst in Mass was alarming & now another founding father

Lord Sheffield- British mercantilists spurred constitution framers to their task; Also a founding father

Events
Annapolis Convention – nine states appointed delegates but only five appointed - fix issue on commerce by Alexander Hamilton

Congress calls another Convention- reluctant but called then called to revise the Articles of Confederation; most Revolutionary leaders of 1776 absent

Philadelphia Convention May 25-September 17,1787- only 42 of original 55 members remained to sign Constitution (3 refused & returned to resist ratification)

Large State Plan- pushed as the framework of the constitution; its essence was that representation in both houses of a bicameral congress should be based on population (large states have advantage)

Small State Plan- included VA & NJ; provided equal representation in a unicameral congress by states, regardless of size & population under the AOC

Great Compromise- hammered out & agreed upon; large states represented by population in HOR; each state no matter how big or small had 2 senators

End of 1807- slave trade turned off but only Georgia allowed

Elections held to for members in states to of the ratifying convention- feds or antis were elected on a basis of their pledge for/against the Constitution; Penn first state to accept constitution; Mass provided acid test- if failed the constitution would be bogged down

Boston Ratifying Convention- the absence of the bill of rights feared anti- federalist but federalists assured them that the 1st congress would add such a safeguard by amendment

Constitution adopted June 21, 1788- 9 states expect VA,NY,NC & Ohio ratified the constitution

Virginia ratified Constitution- Virginia ratified Constitution—provided fierce anti-federalist opposition; George Washington, James Madison, and John Marshall (federalists) lent influential support; could not continue as an independent state because the new Union was going to be formed anyway

New York Ratified the Constitution- realized it cannot be an independent state & prosper away from the union; approved 32 proposed amendments; issued a call for another convention to modify the Constitution

Convention met in North Carolina—adjourned without taking a vote

Rhode Island rejected the Constitution—did not summon a ratifying convention; rejected by popular referendum

Documents
The Federalist- John Jay, Madison, and Hamilton write series of articles for New York news; designed as propaganda but...
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