a) Describe the externalities that are shown in Figure 3.1 as a result of human economic activities. b) Connect the concept of externalities to market failure and illustrate with an example. (pp. 43-45) a – The externalities in this illustration are, as in most cases found “downstream” the main one here is the polluted river as a result of a few causes. The farm is causing pollutants to enter the stream and flow down river, as well as, the uncontrolled erosion taking place and the feed lot. All these lead to pollutants going downstream. b – As a result of externalities in this illustration people are not able to use the river and the pollutants are entering the lake or ocean that it drains into. The beneficiaries are the farmer and feed lot owners making money off what they do with the people downstream losing out.
Explain the importance of performing environmental impact assessments before new development projects are launched. (pp. 45-47) They are important because they take into account the effects a project will have on the environment. Not only the ground itself bet the air and how the project will affect the population around it as well. Another process used is a cost-benefit analysis, used to compare the gains vs. the costs of completing a project. Both of these are great ways to consider the environment, but it is important they are done before a project.
How do you feel about the increasing popularity of ecotourism primarily in tropical countries? Does it impact the local environment in positive or negative ways? (pp. 56-59) Ecotourism is both good and bad. Some of the negatives are that it brings people into a place, this often means litter and people not respecting the land like they should. On a positive note there is monetary value, stimulating the economy and often times some of the money goes toward preservation and research that is good for the environment.
Describe the different ways...
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