Concept of working capital includes meaning of working capital and its nature. Working capital is the investment in current assets. Without this investment, we can not operate our fixed assets properly. For getting good profits from fixed assets, we need to buy some current assets or pay some expenses or invest our money in current assets. For example, we keep some of cash which is the one of major part of working capital. At any time, our machines may need repair. Repair is revenue expense but without cash, we can not repair our machines and without machines, our production may delay. Like this, we need inventory or to invest in debtors and other short term securities.
On the basis of Concept, we can divide our working capital into two parts: [pic]
1. Gross Working Capital
In this concept of working capital, we study gross working capital. We do not deduct current liabilities in this concept but we use current liabilities as source of fund. Suppose, if we buy goods on credit, it means our save our cash and we can use this as working capital for paying other expenses.
2. Net Working Capital
Under this concept we use net working capital. For this, we first deduct all our current liabilities from our current assets. Excess of current assets over current liabilities will be current assets. We have to maintain minimum level of working capital in our business for operation of business activities. This concept is also used for preparation of balance sheet. In the vertical form of balance sheet, we show excess of current assets over current liabilities.
Operating Cycle Concept of Working Capital
In this concept of working capital, we make the operating cycle. In this cycle, we calculate inventory conversion period. To know this, we can estimate when we need cash for buying our inventory. We also calculate debtor or receivable conversion period. To know this, we can estimate when we receive cash from our debtors.
If inventory conversion period is less than debtor conversion period, we have to manage other sources for buying our inventories. If we buy good on credit, we also take care.
Definition of Working Capital
" Working capital is an excess of current assets over current liabilities. In other words, The amount of current assets which is more than current liabilities is known as Working Capital. If current liabilities are nil then, working capital will equal to current assets. Working capital shows strength of business in short period of time . If a company have some amount in the form of working capital , it means Company have liquid assets, with this money company can face every crises position in market. "
Formula of Calculating Working Capital
Working Capital = Current Assets - Current Liabilities
Current assets are those assets which can be converted into cash within One year or less then one year . In current assets, we includes cash, bank, debtors, bill receivables, prepaid expenses, outstanding incomes .
Current Liabilities are those liabilities which can be paid to respective parties within one year or less than one year at their maturity. In current liabilities, we includes creditors, outstanding bills, bank overdraft, bills payable and short term loans, outstanding expenses, advance incomes .
Other names of Working Capital
Some Professional accountants know working capital as operating capital, operating liquidity, positive working capital.
Important things about Working Capital
1. Working Capital can be negative. At that time, We add one word " deficiency" in the back of working capital . It means if Current Liabilities are more than current assets, it is known as working capital deficiency or inverse working capital or negative working capital.
2. Working capital can be easily adjusted, if Accounts manager knows different techniques of managing working capital . He can try to get short term loan or he can...
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