Concept Analysis Critique of Christensen’s Homophobia in Nursing Using Walker and Avant’s Framework NUR 701-90 Nursing Theory
The Sage Colleges
Lori Ciafardoni-Hawkes RN, MSN/MEd
November 17, 2010
Concept Analysis Critique of Christensen’s Homophobia in Nursing Using Walker and Avant’s Framework Introduction
Concept analysis is discussed by Walker and Avant (2005) as a way to describe phenomena in nursing practice, as it “allows the theorist, researcher, or clinician to come to grips with the various possibilities within the concept of interest” (Walker & Avant, 2005, pg. 63). Walker and Avant developed an eight step process of concept analysis, which includes selecting a concept, determining the aims or purposes of the analysis, identifying all uses of the concept that can be discovered, determining the defining attributes, identifying the model case, identifying borderline, related, contrary, invented, and illegitimate cases, identifying antecedents and consequences, and defining empirical referents (Walker & Avant, 2005). The following is an examination of the concept analysis procedure developed by Walker and Avant as applied to the article Homophobia in Nursing: A Concept Analysis by Martin Christensen. Selecting a concept is the first step in the 8-step analysis procedure. The chosen concept should be one that is important and interesting to you. Additionally, selection of the concept should be “useful to your research program or to further theoretical developments in your area of interest” (Walker & Avant, 2005, pg. 66). Christensen (2005) selected to analyze the concept of homosexuality in nursing because “…nurses draw mainly on their own experiences, experiences that may possess traditional and uncompromising attitudes about homosexuality and the health needs of patients…suggest(ing) that attitudes are linked to behavior and that certain predetermined beliefs and attitudes will prevent delivery of holistic and individualized care”( pg. 61).
Christensen’s article holds relevance in today’s nursing practice as the definition of family as many have learned it has changed. This new, modern family often includes non-traditional and chosen families rather than blood relatives. People are choosing to define family for themselves and one subset of families is same-sex couples. Nursing professionals need to recognize the family as a patient defines it rather than how text or organizations define it and homophobia need not be part of that equation. As a labor and delivery nurse, I see every definition of family imaginable and as a female in a same-sex marriage; this is one phobia that I am faced with both personally and professionally on a regular basis. Defining this concept and redefining family are both important parts to changing how health care professionals think and are trained and educated. Defining the Concept, Related Terms and Differences
Christensen clearly defined the concept of homophobia related to nursing. He explains that nurses often use their own experiences to dictate their care and that if they have issues with homosexuality for personal, religious or other reason that it may interfere with quality, individualized care which all patients and their families deserve (Christensen, 2005). In healthcare, sociology, education and psychology, much work has been done around homophobia (Neville & Henrickson, 2006; Richmond and McKenna, 1998; Rondahl, Innala, & Carlsson, 2004; Tate & Longo, 2004). Baker (1991) presented a paper at The Annual Meeting of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance and stated that “the impact of homophobia on health education practice had received little attention. As a profession, health educators had not yet adequately addressed lesbian and gay health issues”. Baker’s paper “defined homophobia and discussed the consequences of homophobia in health...