1. Introduction to Operating System:-
Computer is a somewhat complex machine. The world has become accustomed to so many choices. One of the major choices in the modern era is the “Operating System (OS)”. Operating systems are the central software component to any computer. The main brands of operating system are; Windows Mac OS, Sun Solaris, UNIX, DOS and Linux. Each brand has its own take on what makes up an operating system. Windows is the most commonly used operating system around the world. The most common advantage about Windows is its simplicity. It is now very easy for an inexperienced person to grasp the concept and use the computer with this operating system on it. Windows newest version is Vista and windows7. Vista has made computing a lot safer. Unfortunately, the simplicity which was there with previous versions has gone out of other version of windows. With its focus turning to security, lots of the simple things have been changed to turn into harder tasks. Windows was the first operating system to make the use of the computer simple. This has allowed a computer revolution as more and more of the world becomes computerized using windows as its operating system. The main bad point about Microsoft Vista is the price tag. For what it is, it is not worth the price tag, but people want simplicity, so they pay that little bit extra, so they get to use what they work with on a day to day basis in work places all around the world.
Thus, the operating system (OS) is a computer program (system software) that acts as an intermediate between user and computer hardware. This is the first software that we see when we turn on the computer and the last software when we turn off the computer. It provides higher level abstraction. In conclusion, it is a master supervisory program which provides friendly interface for the user to interact with the computer and its peripherals and different application software as well as an environment for programs or applications to execute.
➢ Scheduling: - One of the functions of operating system is to allow multiple programs to execute in single processor system. There is fast switching of processor time for each job waiting for processor time.
➢ Interrupt handling: - It determines the causes of the interruption and passes control to another module of the program which was interrupted.
➢ Memory management: - It stores programs which are needed the most. The management of working area to execute the program is memory management. Memory management is all about transfer between the main and backing storage.
➢ Virtual memory management: - It is a technique for making computer appear to have more memory than it actually has. By this process we can load small portions of hard disk and process it when needed and swapping them out when another process is to be carried out.
➢ File Management: - It works on the basis of FAT. It allocates space on the storage media to hold each file which is stored and de-allocates space when needed. It maps logical file address to physical disk address.
➢ Resource allocation: - In large computer systems which are capable of running several programs at once, operating system is responsible for allocating processing time, memory and resources. All the jobs are performed in order as they are to be performed and as they are submitted, then operating system schedules them in order to make the best possible use of the resources.
Some Popular Operating System:-
Microsoft is a multinational computer technology corporation. The Microsoft began on April 4, 1975, when it was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in Albuquerque. Microsoft windows are a series of software operating system and graphical user interface produced by Microsoft Corporation. Windows came to dominate the world’s personal computer market. It was stated that windows had approximately 90% of the client...
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