Attention to Dr.Abdel Moneim Elsaid
Student Name: Ahmad Mohammad Nabih (Group 39 A)
The evolution of public ownership has created a separation between ownership and management. Before the 20th century, many companies were small, family owned and family run. Today, many are large international conglomerates that trade publicly on one or many global exchanges. In an attempt to create a corporation where stockholders' interests are looked after, many firms have implemented a two-tier corporate hierarchy. On the first tier is the board of governors or directors: these individuals are elected by the shareholders of the corporation. On the second tier is the upper management: these individuals are hired by the board of directors. In a small co. the Owner can be the only person or there can be several owners of a company and the larger the organization the more layers of titles. In a corporation with many different businesses (a conglomerate), there may be one CEO who oversees a number of presidents, each running a different business of the conglomerate and reporting to the one CEO. In a company with subsidiaries, it would be unusual to have one person carry out the roles of both CEO and president.
A company without subsidiaries may have one person execute the roles of CEO and president (and perhaps even chairman). As such, greater communication and contact can be achieved between the board of directors, which sets policies, and the president, who oversees the day-to-day operations of the company. In relatively small companies in North America, it is quite common for a single person to hold the positions of CEO and Chairman of the Board as well as the title 'President'. In the United States the CEO may also be the chairman of the board or the company president in small businesses, but these roles are often separated in larger organizations, to prevent the company from becoming dominated by a single personality, and to prevent a conflict of interest against the owners (the shareholders).
In the European Union there is a stipulation that the chief executive and the chairman of the board be separate functions. This ensures a distinction between governance and management and allows for clear lines of authority. The aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. Etymologically, a "president" is one who presides, who sits in leadership. President is also used as a title in some non-governmental organizations. The head of a university or non-profit corporation, particularly in the United States of America, is often known as president. President is also a title in many corporations. The President title is used in place of CEO in smaller companies. Also, many companies combine the title President with CEO or COO. See the function code CEO/President of a Division, Region or Unit to find Presidents who oversee the operations of a company's divisions, subsidiaries, etc. In public companies (i.e. stock are sold to the public) they are often appointed by the stock holders. In the largest companies they represent and watch for the interests of very large stockholders or group of. In private companies the CEO is often the Chairman of the Board. But even in private companies that have sold or granted shares to other employees or private investors (Venture Capital companies often impose presence in the Board as a condition for investing), the Chairman may be another Board member. Criteria of corporate structure:
1- Corporate Size.
2- Privacy Type.
3- Corporate Type (Profitable and Non Profitable)
The Chairman of a company is generally the chairman of the...