1. List and describe three (3) major LAN topologies?
Topologies can define as the layout of a network. There are really three basic types of topologies. They are Star, Bus, and Ring. In a star topology, all computers and devices are connected to a centrally located hub or switch. The hub or switch collects and distributes the flow of data within the network. It’s better to use a switch than a hub because a switch transmits the data to the intended recipient rather than to all hosts on a network. In a bus topology, all computers and devices are connected in series to a single linear cable called a trunk or sometimes called a backbone. Both ends of the trunk must be terminated to stop the signal from bouncing back up the cable. Because the bus topology does not have a central point it is difficult to troubleshoot problems. Also, a break at any point along the bus can cause the entire network to go down. In a ring topology, all computers and devices are connected to cable that forms a closed loop. Each computer on this type of topology acts like a repeater and boosts the signal before sending it to the next computer. It transmits data by passing a “token” around the network. Hence this type of network is commonly called a Token ring network. Similar to the Bus topology, if one computer fails, the entire network goes down.
2. Define the internet, describe how it works and explain how it provides business value? The internet has become the world’s most extensive, public communication system that now rivals the global telephone system in reach and range. It’s also the world’s largest implementation of client/ server computing and internet-working, linking millions of individual networks all over the world. It works by subscribing to an internet service provider. An Internet Service Provider (ISP) is a commercial organization with a permanent connection to the internet that sells temporary connection to retail subscribers. EarthLink, NetZero, AT&T, and Microsoft Network (MSN) are ISPs. Individuals also connect to the internet through their business firms, universities, or research centres that have designated internet domains. There are a variety of services for ISP internet connections. Connecting via a traditional telephone line and modem, at a speed of 56.6 kilobits per second (kbps) used to be the most common form of connection worldwide , but it is quickly being replaced by broadband connections. Digital subscriber line (DSL), cable, and satellite internet connections, and T lines provide these broadband services. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technologies operate over existing telephone lines to carry voice, data, and video at transmission rates ranging from 385 kbps all the way up to 9 mbps. Cable Internet Connections provided by cable television vendors use digital cable coaxial lines to deliver high-speed internet access to homes and businesses. They can provide high-speed access to the internet of up to 10 mbps. In areas where DSL and cable services are unavailable, it is possible to access the internet via satellite, although some satellite internet connections have slower upload speeds than these other broadband services. T1 and T3 are international telephone standards for digital communication. They are leased, dedicated lines suitable for businesses or government agencies requiring high-speed guaranteed service levels. T1 Lines offer guaranteed delivery at 1.54 mbps, and T3 lines offer delivery at 45 mbps.
The internet provides a synthesis of computing and communication capabilities that add value to every part of the business cycle. A computer network infrastructure if properly aligned with a business’s goals, can serve as a foundation and enabler for key applications, innovation that contributes to competitive advantage, and sustainable growth. Substantial cost savings can arise because applications that use the Internet based technologies...
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