Compare and Contrast the Processes of Mitosis and Meiosis.

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|Compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Discuss the roles and significance of mitosis and meiosis in the | |life of flowering plants and mammals, illustrating your answer with examples where appropriate. |

Many living organisms in the Earth can continue because of the process of producing individuals called reproduction. Both mitosis and meiosis which are nuclear division in mitotic and meiotic cell division respectively play important roles in reproduction. In this essay, the processes of mitosis and meiosis are going to be compared, and the roles and significance of these two processes in the life of flowering plants and mammals are going to be discussed.

Both mitosis and meiosis involve the passing of genetic information from parent cells to daughter cells, which the genetic information is carried in chromosomes in the nuclei of cells. A chromosome is formed by each DNA molecules coiling around some histone (special proteins). Before mitosis and meiosis, chromosomes duplicate. However, mitosis only has four stages while meiosis has eight stages. The four stages of mitosis are similar to the first four stages of meiosis that are called prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase. The pairing up of homologous chromosomes only occurs in meiosis, but not in mitosis. After that, the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell, then separate and are moved to two sides of the cell by spindle fibre. While mitosis forms two diploid (2n) daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell after the four stages; meiosis still has four stages which are similar to the previous four stages, and finally produces four haploid (n) daughter cells that are genetically different from the parent cell.

For mitosis, it occurs in simple organisms (e.g. bacteria) to produce offspring which this process is called asexual reproduction. Also, it takes place in somatic cells (in body), and is involved in...
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