Assignment Template for Individual Assignment.
Subject Code: MGMT20001| Subject Name: Organisational Behaviour| Student ID Number: 562915| Student Name: Yong Sook Mun|
Tutorial Day/Time: Wed, 12-1pm| Tutor Name: Jaci Maddern| Assignment Name or Number: Individual Assignment|
Due Date: 13 August 2012|
There are people who tend to prejudice against or in favor of a certain thing, individual, or group compared with another. This basically defines biasness and it is usually considered to be an unfair thought. Individuals not only act in a bias way towards people around them but also towards themselves without realizing it. This leads to the issue of biases in self-perception. Self-perception is defined as how an individual’s performance and controlling elements respond in a different way with his ability (Mead, 1934; Ryle, 1949; Skinner, 1957, as cited in Bem, 1967). Common biases of self-perception
There are quite a few biases that are discussed in Yammarino and Atwater (1997) and Dunning et al. (2003). The double curse, undue modesty, underestimation and overestimation are biases of self-perception, just to name a few. In these two case studies, the common biases would be underestimation and overestimation.
Recent research suggests that people are not good at distinguishing the boundaries of their expertise and knowledge. Therefore, in many situations, people do not realize their incompetence. When individuals lack knowledge, they momentously overestimate their expertise and talent, thinking they are doing just fine when in fact they are doing rather poorly (Dunning et al., 2003). This explains that overestimation happens when an individual overrate their abilities and skills.
When an individual rates himself lesser than how others rate upon him, it is called underestimation. This often occurs when the individual is not aware of his or her strengths or is being overly humble (Yammarino & Atwater, 1997).
Problems such biases in self-perception cause for individuals and organizations When individuals act in a way that is either underestimating or overestimating, it is expected to cause problems to themselves as well as the organization. Firstly, Kruger and Dunning proposed that for any given set of skills, incompetent people will tend to overestimate their own level of skill, fail to identify genuine skill in others, and fail to identify their inadequacy. It is said that women are increasingly leaving out science careers and opportunities in the educational and professional ladder (Seymour, 1992 cited in Dunning et al 2003). Even when there is no gender difference in performance, this has caused women to that think they are not capable of a particular scientific task than men tend to think. Hence, this results in lesser passionate women contributing in scientific activities (Dunning et al., 2003).
When we receive negative feedback from people, we often receive less negative feedback than actual. This basically means most of the feedbacks are likely to be sugar-coated. This deficiency would cause individuals to see themselves in an unrealistically positive manner. Other than that, self- perception also causes individuals to markdown or rationalizes negative feedback, while accepting positive feedback as more truthful and informational. This increases the likelihood of favoring positive information as it is more consistent with our self-perception. As for the case of the over-estimator, both the focal individual and the organization will be very negative based on the substantial evidence that HRM produced (Yammarino and Atwater, 1997).
Problems with over-estimators is that they tend to make less useful job-relevant decisions, misuse their strengths and weaknesses, form negative attitudes, including resentment and hostility. In addition, over-estimators suffer from career downfall and are not able to accept being trained and developed. Furthermore, they have high...