This investigation involves burning alcohol in the air. Key science- Chemistry by Eileen Ramsden says that " an alcohol is a series of organic, homologous compounds, with the general formula Cn H2n+1OH". The alcohol reacts with the oxygen in the air to form the products water and carbon dioxide:
Cn H2n+1OH +(n+n/2)-1O2 ? nH2O + nCO2
The structure of the molecules in this reaction is:
H H | | H - C - C - O- H + 3[O=O] ? 1/2[O=C=O] + 3[H-O-H] | | H H
This reaction is exothermic, as heat is given out. This is because the amount reactant energy is more than the product energy the difference between this is ?H, therefore some energy has been given out in the form of heat.The energy is given out when forming the bonds between the new water and carbon dioxide molecules. This can be shown in an energy level diagram: Reaction co-ordinate ?H is the heat content, which is the enthalpy, which is negative in exothermic reactions as the diagram shows that energy is 'lost' as heat. Enthalpy is defined as the energy of reaction, or the heat energy associated with a chemical change. Chemical Principles By Master & Slowinski says that "For any reaction carried out directly at a constant pressure, the heat flow is exactly equal to the difference between enthalpy of products and that of the reactants", or: Qp = Hp - Hr = ?H Where Qp is the heat flow at constant pressure, Hp is heat energy of products, and Hr is the heat energy of the reactants.
To measure ?H given off, we must use this energy to heat something, this will be water. This is assuming that all the heat produced by combustion of fuel (?H) will equal the amount of heat absorbed by the water (q). So I will measure the amount of energy required to do so. This can be worked out by useing the formula: q = mass X specific heat capacity X temperature rise 1000 Where q is the quantity of heat. The specific heat capacity is the amount of energy required to heat the substance, and is calculated using the formula q = MC?, where q is the enthalpy, is the specific heat capacity and ? is the temperature rise. I chose to use water as it is safe, easily obtainable, and has a constant, reliable specific heat capacity of 4.2J/?C.
The bonds which are made in a exothermic reaction "are forces of attraction between the atoms or ions in a substance" according to Key science- Chemistry by Eileen Ramsden. These can be of two types: covalent, in which the atoms share electrons. Examples of this are water and carbon dioxide, which has a double covalent bond because it shares two pairs of electrons are shared. The other type of bonds are ionic, where a metal is involved. This is where electrons are transferred from one ion to another, so there is an electrostatic force between the ions.
The variables that must be controlled are:
* Mass of water
* Amount of wick on burner
* Type of alcohol
* Height of can above flame
* Type of can
* Time of burning
The alcohols used in this experiment will be from methanol, to hexanol, their formulas and predicted enthalpy changes are:
Substance Formula - Predicted enthalpy change (KJ/mole)
Methanol CH3OH -730
Ethanol C2H5OH -1370
Propanol C3H7OH -2010
Butanol C4H9OH -2670
Pentanol C5H11OH -3320
Hexanol C6H13OH 3980 N.B. The precicted enthalpy changes come form the book of data by Nufield science. As the table shows, each alcohol reaction increases each time by :
CH2 +11/2O 2 ? CO2 + H2O.
Investigating The Combustion Of Alcohols - Method
I did some preliminary results, the results of which are shown in the table below:
Mass water (g) Initial temperature (C) Final temperature (C) Temperature rise (C)
50 19 42 23
100 20 38 18
150 20 31 11
This experiment was done to see which mass of water would be best. The 50g mass was too large a rise as this caused too much heat to be lost to the environment, and 150 was to small. Therefore the...