Abstract: This lab was conducted to investigate the theories of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in different types of 2D collisions. In order to do this, both an elastic and inelastic collision was conducted on an air table with pucks. A video was taken and analyzed to determine velocity, allowing for future finding of momentum and kinetic energy values. By finding these, it was possible to determine which kind of collision took place. With low values of change in momentum and kinetic energy that occurred in elastic collisions, it is understood that both are conserved in this type of collision. However, in the inelastic collision, momentum is conserved while kinetic energy is not. Possible error in this lab may have resulted from the neglect of friction and rotational kinetic energy. Overall, however, the results matched up well with the expected values. The objective of the lab was therefore met.

Objective:
The objective of this lab is to support that momentum will be conserved in all forms of collisions, and that kinetic energy will be conserved only in elastic collisions. Materials:
Materials used in this lab were a video camera, an air table with pucks and Velcro bands, and Logger Pro software. Procedure:
Videos of collisions of air hockey pucks will be recorded onto the computer’s hard drive. Two different types of collisions will be analyzed. The first will be nearly-elastic, with each puck going separate directions after the collision. The other type is completely inelastic with each buck bearing Velcro so as to stick together upon collision. The first collision requires first setting an origin on the video. Using the Set Scale tool, a distance scale will be set. Trajectory of the center puck is marked and an arbitrary time is picked at which data will begin being extracted. Points will then be added one frame at a time until enough measurements are taken before and after the collision. This is then...

...Momentum and Simple 1D Collisions PhET Lab
Introduction: When objects move, they have momentum. Momentum, p, is simply the product of an object’s mass (kg) and its velocity (m/s). The unit for momentum, p, is kgm/s. During a collision, an object’s momentum can be transferred to impulse, which is the product of force (N) and time (s) over which the force acts. This allows us to write the momentum-impulse theorem:
Procedure: Play with the Sims Physics Motion CollisionLab
Work with 1D collisions at this level. Later (AP Physics) you'll use trigonometry to solve 2D collisions. Velocity to the right is positive, left is negative. Check your work in the simulation after you have completed the tables.
Important Formulas:
Perfectly Elastic Collisions: To begin a collision: To restart a collision:
Take some time to familiarize yourself with the simulation and perfect collisions. Play. Investigate. Learn.
Investigate the action of a more-massive attacking object striking a less-massive target object.
What happens to the more-massive attacking object? ______________________________________
What happens to the less-massive target object? __________________________________________
Investigate the action of a less-massive attacking object striking a more-massive target object.
What happens to the less-massive...

...system, if no net external force acts on a system of particles, the total linear momentum of the system cannot change. There are two simple types of collisions, elastic and inelastic. If the total kinetic energy of the two systems is conserved then the collision is known as elastic. If the kinetic energy is not conserved, then the collision is inelastic.
H = g/2 x t^2
x = v_xt
v_x = x √g/2(H)
m_b v_x = (m_b+ m_p)V
V^2 = 2gh
h = l (1 - cosϴ)
Apparatus: CENCO Ballistic Pendulum, meter stick, carbon paper, 2 sheets of white paper, metal ball, plumb bob.
Procedure:
In preparation to fire the metal ball from the spring gun, we moved the pendulum arm to its maximum position and out the line of fire.
We fired the spring gun to get an estimate of where the ball will drop on the floor.
We then set up the carbon paper between two sheets of white paper on the floor in the spot that the ball hit the floor.
We fired the spring gun 3 times, each time using a meter stick to record the vertical distance from the tip of the spring gun to the points on the floor.
We took the mean distance (x) and recorded it.
We released the pendulum arm to allow the ball to be caught by the pendulum’s ball catcher.
The ball was fired 3 times, each time giving a different reading on the scale that determines the angle of the inelastic collision. We took the mean angle (ϴ) and recorded it.
We measured the mass of the ball...

...Collision and Conservation of Momentum
Collision, a normal phenomenon in our daily life, also is familiar by people in physics field. As we can imagine, there are many interesting among collision cause our attention to think about what is this exactly about and how does is work or maybe why is that such as there maybe some neutron stars intensely hurtling in outer space or two small eggs hitting each other. Outer space is filled with infinite particles that maybe as small as things people cant find out or measure so far and collisions are mostly about those small particles moving and hitting. For example, light wouldn’t be so bright according to its mass and the reason that it delivers light is because collision -- namely fraction – to produce photon and then integrate light. A collision is an isolated event in which two o more moving bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Even though, many people would refer collision to accidents where there are object badly crashed, what my topic will be focused on are those phenomenon among physics world. Moreover, when scientists use the word of “collision”, they try to imply nothing about the magnitude of the forces. Collision was ever a hot topic drawing many physicists’ attention. After plenty of delving, physicists establish the momentum conservation law. Collision is...

...1: Momentum was found that after the collision was less than before the collision by 10%. This was not what has been expected, so the difference was fairly significant. This happened because of friction, when the two pucks collided, they have lost a bit of their momentum, so the momentum after the collision differed. Kinetic energy differed more than what was expected, it was significantly less after the collision, the difference before and after the collision was 63.7%, so 36.3% of that momentum was lost. This have occurred because the collision is inelastic and since there was friction when the two pucks collided, their speed became less, and speed is directly proportional to kinetic energy.
Category 2: the change of momentum before and after the collisions differed slightly, the change of momentum before the collision was less than that after the collision. This was not what was expected, but because the collision was inelastic and experienced friction when the two pucks collided, the time before the collision differed from that after the collision. After the collision, the pucks lost some speed and so it took more time to cover the same distance before the collisions. In the equation time will become less and change in momentum is directly proportional to time....

...CollisionLab Simulation
Purpose: To study elastic and inelastic collisions in one-dimension.
Background Information:
Momentum: is a measure of mass in motion. It is the product of mass x velocity.
Conservation of Momentum: in the absence of external forces, such as friction, the linear momentum of a system remains constant.
Procedure:
1. Open web browser and go to the site: http://phet.colorado.edu
2. Click “play with sims”, then “physics”, and then “motion”
3. Find the “CollisionLab”
4. Click “Run Now”
5. Today’s lab will be entirely on the “introduction” tab
6. Check the box “show values”, and the “more data” button is clicked (and other checkboxes as desired)
Part 1 – Elastic Collsions
Scenario #1: Elastic collision between balls of equal mass
Make sure elasticity is 100%
Masses should be equal
One velocity should be zero, the other some amount, arranged to collide
Run the simulation
Fill in data table below:
Object
Mass
Initial Velocity
Final Velocity
Initial Mom. (ρ)
Final Mom. (ρ)
1
2
1. What is the relationship between the initial and final total momentums?
2. Describe the motion of the balls before and after the collision?
Scenario #2: Elastic collision between balls of unequal mass, with more massive ball stationary
Same as scenario #1, except have unequal masses and the less massive ball is...

...2013
Kyle, Mat, Alex
Lab M7
Conservation of Momentum
Abstract: This experiment involved the use of gliders on an air track which nearly isolates the colliding system from external forces to create low friction totally elastic and inelastic collisions. Seven different collisions were made, four elastic and three inelastic. The collisions consisted of only two gliders with varying masses and speeds. Each glider cart was equipped with a flag, and its passage through a photogate timer was timed. These measurements will allowed the velocities of the collision partners to be measured before and after they collided with each other. The obtained values do show that initial momentum and final momentum are equal irrespective of their masses and initial velocities. The results show that momentum and kinetic energy of the system is conserved during an elastic collision while only momentum is conserved during inelastic collision. Kinetic energy is not conserved during an inelastic collision. This was found by dividing the final kinetic energy by the initial kinetic and getting a number that was close to one. Which is was fairly close in most cases.
Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to study the principle of conservation of momentum in collisions using two bodies. The amount of kinetic energy lost in elastic and inelastic...

...the experiment is to explore elastic and inelastic collisions in order to study the conservation of momentum and energy. The guided track, carts, photogates , 250 g weight and picket fences were the primary components used in the procedural part of the experiment. Each experiment involved the use of the photogates and picket fences to measure the initial and final velocities of both carts when they collide. The data was collected and translated to a graphical model for further analysis. The experiment was repeated for elastic and inelastic collisions with varying masses. The calculations state that the percent discrepancies for inelastic collisions were 8.75% and 19.23 % for the equal mass and unequal mass respectively. The percent discrepancies for the equal and unequal mass elastic collisions were 22.07% and 9.78 % respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies for the collisions were close to the 10%-15% range which validates the concept of momentum conservation in inelastic and elastic collisions. In regards to conservation of energy, the calculations state that the percent discrepancies for inelastic collisions were 58.33% and 81.81% for the equal mass and unequal mass respectively. Both of the percent discrepancies were greater than 60% which indicates inelastic collisions are not as inefficient in conserving energy due to a loss in energy. The...

...Experiment 4
Inelastic Collisions, Conservation of Momentum and Non
Conservation of Kinetic Energy
Preparation
Prepare for this week's experiment by studying Newton's Laws, linear momentum, and kinetic
energy.
Principles
In this experiment you will study a collision where a moving object strikes and sticks to an
initially motionless object. When the colliding objects stick together the collision is said to be
completely inelastic. The net momentum of the system should not change, but the net kinetic
energy of the system will decrease. The amount of kinetic energy left after the collision can be
predicted using conservation of momentum.
Linear momentum is defined as
p = mv .
It is a vector quantity; the momentum is always in the same direction as the linear velocity. As
long as the mass is constant, the time derivative of momentum is
dp
dv
=m .
dt
dt
Since the time derivative of the velocity is the acceleration, we see that
dp
dv
=m
= ma = ∑ F .
dt
dt
Force changes momentum. If no net force is applied to an object its momentum remains
constant.
Consider a collision between object 1 and object 2. If there is no other force on object 1 other
than the force from object 2, or if the other forces on object 1 add to zero, then
dp1
= ma1 = ∑ F1 = F21 .
dt
The force from object 2 is the only thing changing the momentum of object 1.
If there is no other force on object 2...