Collective Bargaining

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1.INTRODUCTION
Collective bargaining has been defined by different experts in different ways. Nevertheless, it is treated as a method by which problem of wages and conditions of employment are resolved peacefully and voluntarily between labor and management. However, the term collective bargaining is opposed to individual bargaining. Sometimes, it is described as a process of accommodation between two conflicting interests . The I.L.O. defines collective bargaining:

"As negotiations about working conditions and terms of employment between an employer, or a group of employers, or one or more employers' organisations, on the one hand, and one or more representative workers' organisation on the other with a view to reaching agreement." This definition confines the term collective bargaining as a means of improving conditions of employment. But in fact, collective bargaining serves something more. Perlman aptly stated, "Collective bargaining is not just a means of raising wages and improving conditions of employment. Nor is it merely democratic government in industry. It is above all technique, collective bargaining as a technique of the rise of a new class which is quite different from the desire to displace or abolish" the "old ruling class" to gain equal rights as a class to acquire an excessive jurisdiction in that sphere where the most immediate interests, both material and spiritual, are determined, and a shared jurisdiction with the older class or classes in all other spheres.  The extent of success of collective bargaining in India is discussed in detail in this project report. 1.1 HYPOTHESIS

Collective bargaining is a method by which problem of wages and conditions of employment are resolved peacefully and voluntarily between labor and management. Its success in India is being affected by various causes like problems with the union , problems with the government ,political interference and many more reasons which are discussed in detail. 1.2 Research Methodology

The present research is a doctrinal research which is mainly based on the data collected from the literature, books, acts, legislations, reporters, journals and previous researches based on the same topic. Views of teachers and their help is also being proved fruitful in this research. 2. Evolution of Collective Bargaining

Roots of Collective Bargaining lie in Great Britain where it developed in response to the conditions created by the Industrial Revolution. CB rose and grew with the trade union movement. Along with trade unions, the idea of bargaining collectively gained strength in the early part of the 18 th. Initially, the negotiations were carried out at plant level.  By early 1900, industry and national level agreements became quite common. The idea spread across to France, Germany, and USA.  And today, through the process of CB, organizations have learnt to cope with industrial conflict. 2.1 Evolution in India

History of collective bargaining in India can be studied under three different periods:  * From 1920 to 1950 
* From 1951 to 1969 
* From 1970 onwards
These periods reflect distinct features of collective bargaining in the country  1920-1950
Bargaining was in the stage of infancy .It was not a very common method of regulating labour-management relations in India. Trade unionism made its first appearance at the end of the Ist World War with the establishment of the Madras Labour Union in 1918. Gandhiji advocated the formula for resolving industrial disputes by negotiation and mutual discussion between employers and labour. But not until 1920, any serious effort was made to bargain collectively. In the year 1920, a group of employers and their workmen (in the cotton textile industry at Ahmedabad )concluded collective bargaining arrangements to regulate labour-management relations . The Bombay Industrial Dispute Act of 1938, created an atmosphere conducive to the growth of collective bargaining in the country. The...
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