Code Switching

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Code-Switching at NUML


Code Switching usually occurs in bilingual societies. The sociolinguistics aspect of Code Switching involves various factors including society, prestige, and education system and determines the reasons of Code Switching because of socio cultural environment. This research presents an analysis of Code Switching at NUML with in parameters of sociolinguistics context. However, data has been analysed only on Code Switched sociolinguistic patterns used by NUML students of Graduate Studies and analysis is made on the relationship between Code Switching behaviours and class, ethnicity and other social positions. The data is further explored to trace the sociolinguistics implications of Code Switching in local discourse practices at sentence and below sentence level. This phenomenon of Sociolinguistics examines the frequency of occurrence of Code Switching in students and investigates linguistics and social constraints involved including knowledge of society and diverse identities.

Table of Contents

Title Pagei
Table of Contentsiii

Chapter 1


1. Code Switching in language Variations
2. Significance of the Study
3. Code Switching
1. Definition
2. Code Switching in Conversation
3. Code Switching as Linguistic Feature in Sociolinguistic Scenario 4. Code Switching at NUML
4. Statement of the Problem
5. Research Objectives
6. Research Hypothesis
7. Research Questions
8. Research Design

Chapter 2
Literature Review

Chapter 3

Research Methodology

Chapter 3

Data Presentation and Data Analysis

Chapter 4

Additional Interpretations

Chapter 5



Appendix Ai

Chapter 1


Code Switching plays a very important role in language change and language variations and also provides an insight in to the sociolinguistics phenomena taking place in that area, region through the linguistic choices of the people of different classes and family backgrounds.

Since Code Switching is studied from so many perspectives, this research is the identification of various social constraints determining language in its contextual environment. Code Switching is the term given to the use of different varieties of language in different social situations.

1. Code Switching in language Variations

All languages spoken in Pakistan including Urdu are regarded ‘cognate’ languages for the purpose of comparison with English. An average educated Pakistani speaks three languages, a regional language, the national language Urdu and English. The regional languages and Urdu act like two dialects of a language and both languages share some vocabulary and some grammatical structures.

Code Switching refers to the mixing by bilinguals (or multilingual), of two or more languages in discourse. Such mixing may take place at any level of linguistics structure that occurs due to social constraints. Sociolinguistics differs from sociology of language in that the focus of sociolinguistics is the effect of the society on the language, while the latter's focus is on the language's effect on the society. William Labov is often regarded as the founder of the study of sociolinguistics.

Sociolinguistic variables
Studies in the field of sociolinguistics typically take a sample population and interview them, assessing the realisation of certain sociolinguistic variables. Labov specifies the ideal sociolinguistic variable to * be high in frequency,

* have a certain immunity from conscious suppression,
* be an integral part of larger structures, and
* be easily quantified on a linear scale.

Phonetic variables tend to meet these criteria and are often used, as are grammatical variables and, more rarely, lexical variables. Examples for...
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