Storage of CO2 can take place in geological reservoirs (geo-storage), in the ocean or by the mineralization of some other compounds, chemical reactants or rocks. In the context of the present Conference, we now focus on mineral sequestration (mineral carbonation). Top gas recycling: This removes the CO2 and recycles the carbon monoxide (CO) back into the blast furnace, potentially using less than half the emissions of today's state-of-the-art blast furnaces.
Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace
CO and H2 content of the top gas has a potential to act as reducing gas elements, and therefore their re-circulation to the furnace is considered as an effective alternative to improve the blast furnace performance, enhance the utilization of carbon and hydrogen, and reduce the emission of carbon oxides. In Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace, oxygen is blown into the blast furnace instead of hot air to eliminate N2 in off-gas. Part of the off-gas containing CO and H2 is utilized again as the reducing agent in the blast furnace. CO2 from the off-gas is captured and subsequently stored. Various recycling processes have been suggested, evaluated or practically applied for different objectives. These processes are distinguished by: 1) with or without CO2 removal, 2) with or without preheating, and 3) the position of injection. Top Gas Recycling
The concept of the Top Gas Recycling Blast Furnace relies on separation of the off gases so that the useful components can be recycled back into the furnace and used as a reducing agent. This would reduce the amount of coke needed in the furnace. In addition, the concept of injecting Oxygen (O2) into the furnace instead of preheated air, removes unwanted Nitrogen (N2) from the gas, facilitating Carbon dioxide(CO2) Capture and Storage (CCS). On the experimental blast furnace, facilities were installed to operate with pure Oxygen(O2) and with re-injection of Carbon monoxide(CO) gas.
Here a gas separation plant will need to be used, which is a process of separating various hydrocarbon components in natural gas to be used at its fullest value. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
The product is extracted from the gas through the process and then can be used in steel manufacture once again, food preservation, and beverage, raw material for fire extinguisher, artificial rain and others.
The transportation would be through a pipeline from the Gas Separation Plant to various needs e.g. the producers of liquid carbon dioxide and dry ice
CSS It is less expensive than mining the original ore and extracting the metal, both these processes are eliminated and far less energy is used overall, so on several counts it will cost less money i.e. much more economic.
What is CCS?
CCS, or Carbon Capture and Storage, is a low carbon technology which captures carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of coal and gas for power generation, and from the manufacturing of steel, cement and other industrial facilities. The carbon dioxide is then transported by either pipeline or ship, for safe and permanent underground storage, preventing it from entering the atmosphere and contributing to anthropogenic climate change.
CCS uses established technologies to capture, transport and store carbon dioxide emissions from large point sources, such as power stations. It also has an important role to play to ensure manufacturing industries, such as steel and cement, can continue to operate, without the associated emissions. CCS is a key tool in tackling climate change, providing energy security, creating jobs and economic prosperity.
Carbon dioxide recycling / Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) Main article: Carbon neutral fuel
Recycling CO2 may offer a response to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions from major stationary (industrial) emitters in the near to medium term, but is usually considered a different technological category from CCS....
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