The Cloning of Dolly the Sheep 3
The Human Cloning 4
Official Catholic Church Teaching7
Church says “No” to Human Cloning7
What Does the Bible say about Cloning?8
Response to the teaching of the Catholic Church9
The Cloning of Dolly the Sheep
Focusing on the Case
A major scientific achievement was done at the Roslin Institute because the cloning of a sheep was successful. The sheep was named Dolly. Dolly, lived a pampered existence at the Roslin Institute. She mated and produced normal offspring in the normal way, showing that such cloned animals can reproduce. Born on 5 July 1996, she was euthanized on 14 February 2003, aged six and a half. Sheep can live to age 11 or 12, but Dolly suffered from arthritis in a hind leg joint. There are many processes that have been through before Dolly was created. Animal cloning from an adult cell is obviously much more complex and difficult than growing a plant from a cutting. So when scientists working at the Roslin Institute in Scotland produced Dolly, the only lamb born from 277 attempts, it was a major news story around the world to produce Dolly, the scientists used the nucleus of an udder cell from a six-year-old Finn Dorset white sheep. The nucleus contains nearly all the cell's genes. They had to find a way to 'reprogram' the udder cells - to keep them alive but stop them growing – which they achieved by altering the growth medium (the ‘soup’ in which the cells were kept alive). Then they injected the cell into an unfertilized egg cell which had had its nucleus removed, and made the cells fuse by using electrical pulses. The unfertilized egg cell came from a Scottish Blackface ewe. When the research team had managed to fuse the nucleus from the adult white sheep cell with the egg cell from the black-faced sheep, they needed to make sure that the resulting cell would develop into an embryo. They cultured it for six or seven days to see if it divided and developed normally, before implanting it into a surrogate mother, another Scottish Blackface ewe. Dolly had a white face. From 277 cell fusions, 29 early embryos developed and were implanted into 13 surrogate mothers. But only one pregnancy went to full term, and the 6.6kg Finn Dorset lamb 6LLS (alias Dolly) was born after 148 days. Dolly the sheep, was produced at the Roslin Institute as part of research into producing medicines in the milk of farm animals. Researchers have managed to transfer human genes that produce useful proteins into sheep and cows, so that they can produce, for instance, the blood clotting agent factor IX to treat hemophilia or alpha-1-antitrypsin to treat cystic fibrosis and other lung conditions. The development of cloning technology has led to new ways to produce medicines and is improving our understanding of development and genetics.
The Human Cloning
The Scope of It
In genetic engineering, one gene or most commonly, a set of a few genes is taken out of the DNA of one organism and inserted into the DNA of another organism. This we call the "insertion package."This insertion package is inserted into the DNA of the recipient organism. In genetic engineering, a set of foreign genes, is inserted haphazardly in the midst of the sequence of DNA "code words"(in this case in the DNA inherited from the mother [green])). The insertion disrupts the ordinary command code sequence in the DNA. This disruption may disturb the functioning of the cell in unpredictable and potentially hazardous ways. The insertion may make the chromosome unstable in an unpredictable way. The key assumption of genetic engineering is that you can "tailor “organisms by adding genes with desirable properties. But science has found that genes don't work as isolated carriers of properties. Instead the effects of every gene are the outcome of interaction with its...