When an object (stone, spear, arrow or bullet) is thrown, hurled or shot in the air, the object is a PROJECTILE (“Projectile”). The study of projectile is important because it must be realized that they are very much part of man’s daily life then and now. Whether man likes it or not, he encounters and uses projectile in his everyday life. Our hunting ancestors threw stones and spears on animals to kill them for their food. In today’s sports, balls follow projectile motion such as when a basketball player shoots the ball into the hoop, a golfer or a baseball player hitting the ball, a tennis player lobbing the ball, a javelin thrower, a discus thrower or a shot putter trying to throw their objects as far as they can (Sears, Zemansky and Young 54). In warfare, catapults and arrows in medieval times were the deadly weapons while today, guns, mortars, rockets and missiles have replaced those ancient weapons of war (“Field Artillery and Mortars”, “Ballistics”). However, the way to effectively use these weapons has not changed. They are to be launched into projectile motion to hit the target. The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory. Projectiles follow a curved trajectory or curved path that is a PARABOLA. (Sears, Zemansky and Young 54, Briggs 491). It is actually easy to observe projectile motion when we use a light material as the projectile. For example, crumple a sheet of bond paper into a small ball. On a standing position, throw the paper ball straight horizontally. Observe that as the ball moves, it curves downward. Even if you try to throw it harder, it will still follow a curved downward path but will land farther. So, the harder you throw the object straight horizontally, the farther it will land. The distance where the object lands measured horizontally from the point you threw it to the point where it landed is called the RANGE of the projectile. The range of the projectile can be increased by...

...TITLE:
Trajectory of a Projectiles
PROBLEM STATEMENT:
A spherical ball was projected from a fixed point ,O, with a speed ,u, angels of elevation : 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 to the horizontal ground surface. Find the value of maximum height travelled by the ball for which the horizontal range, R, greatest for the same value of u.
AIM:
To investigate:
1)Range of projected ball.
2)Time of flight for corresponding angel of projection
METHODOLOGY:
APPARATUS AND MATERIALS USED:
1)Projectile launcher
2)measuring tape
3)stop watch
4)chalk
DIAGRAM:
Illustration showing how apparatus was set up:
METHOD USED TO CONDUCT EXPERIMENT:
1)The apparatus was set up as shown in the diagram by raising the trigger mechanism with one hand and using the alternate hand, to push the attached ball into the shaft, the screw on the bar was adjusted to produce an appropriate force. This remain stationary to produce a constant force for the projection.
2)The protractor built into the projectile launcher was adjusted to zero degrees.
3)The trigger was pulled , simultaneously starting the stop watch.
4)When the spherical ball hit the horizontal ground surface the stopwatch was stopped. The distance from the projector to where the ball landed was measured.
5)The time of flight was recorded together the distance (range) was recorded.
6)Steps 2-5 were repeated two...

...Investigating Projectiles
Background:
A projectile is an entity which only has the force of gravity acting upon it. A projectile can be cast, fired, flung, heaved, hurled, pitched, tossed and thrown. A projectile can be anything as long as it has initial horizontal velocity that is not equal to zero which has the acceleration due to gravity. Projectile motion happens when an object projected with a force stops putting influence on the object after its launched, hence the only force being gravity. The trajectory is the path of the projectile. There are three types of projectile motion as the following.
Projectiles 1: When an object is dropped from rest at an elevation or fired from elevation with an angle of zero.
Projectiles 2: When the object is thrown at an angle from no elevation with a parabolic trajectory.
Projectiles 3: When the object is thrown upwards at an angle from a higher elevation
Each projectile had its own separate calculations and equations. Projectiles are a 2 dimensional because the motion of the projectile is all one. When calculating projectiles you must consider the acceleration due to gravity because that’s the single force acting upon it and assume that there is no air resistance.
When analyzing Projectile you...

...y I. Introduction
In this lab the main focus was projectile motion. A projectile is an object flying through the air that is only under the force of gravity (neglecting air resistance). A projectilemoves both horizontally and vertically, which creates a parabolic flight path. In vertical projectile motion there is a constant velocity since there are no forces in the horizontal direction (neglecting drag due to air resistance). Consequently, there is no acceleration in horizontal projectile motion. In vertical projectile motion gravity is acting on the projectile, which means that the acceleration in vertical projectile motion is equal to gravity’s acceleration (9.8m/s2). Some equations for projectile motion are the three kinematic equations, the equation for Vx (Vx = ∆x/∆t), and the equation for time (∆t = 2∆y/g).
The purpose of this lab was to get a projectile falling off a ramp on a table to land in a cup by using equations that are related to projectile motion. The hypothesis was that if all the calculations were correct (based on the horizontal and vertical speed of the projectile, the height of the table, the height of the cup, the time for the projectile to pass through the time gates, and the overall range of the projectile) the...

...1
35.0
2.893
11.3
30.0
2.655
CALCULATION
Gradient = 0.0602
y-intercept = k = 2.1241
DISCUSSION
Projectile motion is a form of motion in which an object or particle (called a projectile) is thrown obliquely near the earth's surface, and it moves along a curved path under the action of gravity only. The path followed by a projectile motion is called its trajectory.Projectile motion only occurs when there is one force applied at the beginning of the trajectory, after which there is no force in operation apart from gravity.
Once the object leaves the table, it experiences a downward acceleration equal to gravity. Thus the vertical velocity is continually increasing. The horizontal velocity remains constant. The two vectors are added together to get the velocity at each point on the path.
If an object is pointed at an angle, the motion is essentially the same except that there is now an initial vertical velocity. Because of the downward acceleration of gravity, Vy continually decreases until it reaches its highest point, at which it begins to fall downward.
Example from a sport that uses a ball in which an object is in projectile motion is soccer. In soccer, the soccer ball has projectile motion when it is kicked or when the speed changes. Or when passing the basketball, the projectile motion takes place when...

...Lebanese American University
Classical Physics
3 . Projectile Motion
Objectives:
Students will measure the maximum height H and the range R of a projectile motion.
They will study the effect of the shooting angle on H and R.
Material used:
4 rulers, track, metallic ball, landing track, A4 white paper, red carbon paper, timer + supply, gun
+ protractor.
Theory:
A projectile is an object upon which the only force acting is gravity. There are a variety
of examples of projectiles: an object dropped from rest is a projectile (provided that the
influence of air resistance is negligible), an object thrown vertically upwards is a
projectile (provided that the influence of air resistance is negligible), and an object
thrown upwards at an angle is also a projectile (the same assumption). A projectile is
any object, which once projected, continues its motion by its own inertia and is
influenced only by the downward force of gravity.
By definition, a projectile has only one force acting upon - the force of gravity. If there
were any other force acting upon an object, then that object would not be a projectile.
Projectiles can be launched both horizontally and vertically, and they have both
horizontal and vertical velocity and horizontal and vertical displacement.1
If a body of mass m...

...����������������������� sin 55° −������������������������ = 85 sin 55° − 4.00 ∙ 9.81 = 30 N
The net force is the combination the horizontal component of the applied force and the force of friction. The force of friction is directed to the left, and the horizontal component of the applied force is directed to the right. Therefore, ������������������������������������������������ = 85 cos 55° − ������������������������ 30 N ������������������������������������������������ = ������������������������ N ������������������������ =
Furthermore,
Combining these two equations and solving for the coefficient of friction,
85 cos 55 − 4.00 ∙ 6.00 = 0.83 30
For problems 38-39, see Sample Problem E on page 140 of the text. 38. A clerk moves a box of cans down an aisle by pulling on a strap attached to the box. The clerk pulls with a force of 185.0 N at an angle of 25.0° with the horizontal The box has a mass of 35.0 kg, and the coefficient of kinetic friction between box and floor is 0.450. Find the acceleration of the box.
The normal force is a combination of the vertical component of the applied force and the force of gravity. Therefore, the magnitude of the normal force is given by,
185.0 N 25°
The net force is the combination the horizontal component of the applied force and the force of friction. The force of friction is directed to the left, and the horizontal component of the applied force is directed to the right. Therefore,...

...Projectile Motion
Experiment # 4
Introduction:
Projectile Motion exists commonly in our everyday lives and is particularly evident in the motion or flight of objects which are projected from a particular height. The key to working with projectile motion is recognizing that when an object with mass is flying through the air, its motion is a combination of vertical and horizontal movements. Although the horizontal velocity of the object remains constant throughout the flight, it’s vertical velocity accelerates or decelerates due to gravity.
Purpose:
The purpose of this experiment is to be able to measure the velocity of a ball using two Photogates and computer software for timing, apply concepts from two-dimensional kinematics to predict the impact point of a ball in projectile motion and ability to understand trial-to-trial variations in the velocity measurement when calculating the impact point.
Materials:
Computer plumb bob
Vernier computer interface ramp
Logger Pro two ring stands
Two Vernier Photogates two right-angle clamps
Ball(1 to 5 cm diameter) meter stick or metric measuring tape
Masking tape target
Procedure:
1) Set up a low ramp made of angle molding on a table so that a ball can roll down the ramp, across a short section...

...Berkshire, “ClassicalMechanics” • Douglas Gregory, “ClassicalMechanics” Both of these books are well written and do an excellent job of explaining the fundamentals of classicalmechanics. If you’re struggling to understand some of the basic concepts, these are both good places to turn. • S. Chandrasekhar, “Newton’s Principia (for the common reader)” Want to hear about Newtonian mechanics straight from the horse’s mouth? This is an annotated version of the Principia with commentary by the Nobel prize winning astrophysicist Chandrasekhar who walks you through Newton’s geometrical proofs. Although, in fairness, Newton is sometimes easier to understand than Chandra. • A.P. French, “Special Relativity” A clear introduction, covering the theory in some detail. • Wolfgang Pauli, “Theory of Relativity” Pauli was one of the founders of quantum mechanics and one of the great physicists of the last century. Much of this book was written when he was just 21. It remains one of the most authoritative and scholarly accounts of special relativity. It’s not for the faint of heart. (But it is cheap). A number of excellent lecture notes are available on the web. Links can be found on the course webpage: http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/relativity.html
Contents
1. Newtonian Mechanics 1.1 Newton’s Laws of Motion 1.1.1 Newton’s Laws 1.2 Inertial Frames and...

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