Referencing and Citation
Referencing is an important part of academic work. There are many reasons why students should acknowledge the work of other researchers/writers.
Task 1 Brainstorm these reasons with a partner.
Task 2 Decide if you need to give a reference in the following cases (1-8).
1) Data you found from your own primary research
2) An idea of your own
3) Some data that you used in your own previously conducted research 4) A proposition put forward by a researcher in a seminar 5) A quote from an external source/another author
6) A graph from an internet article
7) A quotation from a book
8) Something agreed to be common knowledge
Harvard Referencing System: Citation Techniques
It is vital that students use a method of citation approved by their university and that they follow the specific referencing requirements employed by their department. There are several systems of referencing in the academic world, but most business schools use the Harvard system. With any system, the most important point is to be consistent.
Materials from external sources are cited using one of the following techniques:
a) Short in-text quotation (within a paragraph)
b) Long, indented quotation (placed between paragraphs)
c) Summary/paraphrased version of writers’ ideas (indirect quotations)
1. Quotations are effective in some situations, but must not be overused. They are valuable when
• the original words express an idea in a distinctive way. • the original is more concise than your summary could be. • the original is well known (as in the quote below from Friedman).
As Friedman stated, ‘Inflation is one form of taxation that can be imposed without legislation’ (1974: 93).
2. Students should avoid excessive use of direct quotations in their work, as frequent and unnecessary usage reduces the impact of the citations and weakens the tone of the paper. The relevance of each quote should be immediately apparent to the reader, for example, • to support a personal viewpoint;
• to introduce a counter-argument;
• to present the outcome of research.
3. All quotations should be introduced by a phrase that shows the source and also explains how this quotation fits into an argument.
4. Care must be taken to ensure that quotations are the exact words of the original. If it is necessary to delete some words which are irrelevant, use the ellipsis mark, or three dots (…) to show where the missing section was. 5. It may be necessary to insert a word or phrase into the quotation to clarify a point. This can be done by using square brackets [ ] as in: ‘This [second] category of products is distinguished by its high brand recognition and resistance to switching strategies….’
6. Longer quotations (of three lines or longer) are either indented or printed in smaller font size.
Examples of short in-text quotations:
Harrison (2005) highlights the ‘need to combat unethical advertising aimed at children’ (p.23). The ‘need to combat unethical advertising aimed at children’ was highlighted in a recent study (Harrison, 2005: 23). Many researchers have argued against the practices of targeting children through advertising strategies. Harrison (2005: 23) argues that there is a strong ‘need to combat unethical advertising aimed at children’.
Paraphrased summary (or indirect quotation)
When writers avoid the use of direct quotations, they may choose to cite an external source by paraphrasing the key ideas, that is, by rewording the main point. For example, if the direct quote was …
Academic writers need to take care when making assertions in their work. In this respect, vague language can be helpful as ‘it allows claims to be made with due caution, modesty and humility’ (Hyland, 1994: 241).
… this could be paraphrased as:
Hedging language can be a useful tool to express caution in academic writing, for it enables...
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