Charter of Athens: tenets
ClAM II in Frankfurt in 1929, which was concerned with 'Minimum LivingStandard Housing', and ClAM III in Brussels in 1930 ('Rational Utilization of Building Sites'), confronted the delegates more and more urgently with problems of town planning. In order to carry the discussion further, the methods of presentation had to be unified. A preparatory committee (CIRPAC) met three times (Berlin 193\, Barcelona \932, Paris 1933) before ClAM IV could take place in July and August 1933 on board the Patrls between Marseilles and Athens. The results of these deliberations concerning '~ .functional City' were later set out by Le Cor!1!Jsier in the Charter of Athens .(1941), paragraphs 71-95 of which constitute essential tenets. _ _.---~
71. The majority of the cities studied today present a picture of chaos: these cities in no way fulfil their destiny, which is to satisfy the primordial biological and psychological needs of their inhabitants. The cities analysed on the occasion of the Congress of Athens through the efforts of the national groups of the 'Congres Internationaull: d'Architecture Moderne' were thirty-three in number: Amsterdam, Athens, Brussels, Baltimore, Bandung, Budapest, Berlin, Barcelona, Charleroi, Cologne, Como, Dalat (Vietnam), Detroit, Dessau, Frankfurt, Geneva, Genoa, The Hague, Los Angeles, Littoria, London, Madrid, Oslo, Paris, Prague, Rome, Rotterdam, Stockholm, Utrecht, Verona, Warsaw, Zagreb, ZUrich. They illustrate the histor of the white rac in the most var in climates and la't es. All of ,. them bear witness to t e same p enomenon: the disorder introduced by the machine into a state of affairs which had previously been relatively harmonious, as well as the absence of any serious attempt at adaptation. In everyone of these cities man is subjected to annoyance. Everything that surroundsllim suffocates and crushes him. None of those things necessary for...